Regularity of needs
|Course||Marxist Theory and Ideological and Political Education|
|Keywords||human needs logical starting-point realization system the cause of the original motive all-round development of human being|
In our country, people didn’t pay enough attention to human needs, especially in taking the issue as a philosophic category during a long period of time in the past. Recently, as the study of this issue is generally heating up ,the elementary achievements have acquired. However, the study needs further discussion, especially about the essence, the developing law and the realization system of human needs, and about the position in historical materialism and the value in social development. This paper is trying to come up with a few new but raw opinions about those necessary questions. It consists of four parts.In the preface, there is a brief introduction about the topic. And it is made clear that human needs as a term in this paper falls into the realm of historical materialism.The first part mainly deals with the position of human needs in historical materialism. It says that the former is the chief premise and logical starting-point of the latter.The second part is an analysis of the complex structure and the various characteristics. First, it introduces several different theories about the needs’ structure. After comparison, it is concluded that Marxist theory of needs’ structure is the principal basis of our study. Second, it describes the characteristics of human needs: objectivity and subjective motility, individuality and community, historical and developing, variety and complication, realistic and transcendent.The third part explores the developing law and realization system of human needs. Firstly, needs base on the law of ascending, which is the most basic and universal law of the development of needs. Then it gives a clear exposition about the display and cause of the law. Secondly, there is a system of transformation from needs to acts, which consists of the psychological system and the inner and outer retraining system. Finally, there is also a complicated and mutually motivating system, which lies in that on the one hand, different needs of different subjects are restricted by each other in their realization, on the other hand, different needs of the same subject will motivate mutually for preference.In the last part, the issue of human needs is further elevated. The paper circles around that the value of human needs in the development of society is that the former is the cause of the original motive of the latter. Here it starts with the analysis of that human needs are the cause of the original motive and the inherent elements of all the activities of human being, and then analyses the relations among the contradictions between needs and production, between the productivity and the relations of production and between the economic base and the upper framework. Therefore it states that the first contradiction is the basic clue of the social development. Finally, the paper connects the all-round development of human needs with the all-round development of human being and argues that the former is the basic content and display of the latter. As a result it further emphasizes the sense of this topic.