Spatial and Temporal Changes of Soil Nutrient and Sustainable Utilization Evaluation in Gaomi County of Shandong Province
|School||Shandong Agricultural University|
|Keywords||Farmland Soil nutrients Temporal and spatial variation Sustainable use evaluation|
Soil is the material basis of human survival and development, along with the increasingly acute contradictions between population, resources, environment, soil quality are continuously being common concern worldwide, in order to obtain the steady growth of agriculture, must be re- Understanding the importance of soil quality in the environment. Soil organic matter, total N, exactable N, available P, available K is a measure of an important indicator of soil nutrients in farmland to study the long-term positioning arable soil organic matter, alkaline hydrolysis N, available P, available K of temporal and spatial variation, and thus to promote open to the regional level, arable soil nutrient spatial and temporal variation regularity and nutrient resources management, improve soil fertility and to guide agricultural production has a very important theoretical and practical significance. At present, the developed countries on the international use of GIS and other advanced technology to study the soil nutrient management has been one of the hot spots of soil science research. The temporal and spatial variability of soil nutrients Whether at home and abroad is in the development of a sound stage. In recent years, the economy and society of Gaomi a huge change, agricultural progress is particularly evident, along with major changes in agricultural projects such as the implementation of the standard farmland construction, comprehensive agricultural development, soil testing and fertilizer, Gaomi soil use, fertilization soil fertility status, arable soil fertility levels will inevitably change. In order to adapt to the requirements of agricultural yield, high quality, ensure food security, economic efficiency of agriculture, this study Gaomi major farmland nutrient status. In this study, extensive collection Gaomi soil, topography, land use status quo, based on the basis of the socio-economic data, the 1983 second soil survey data, the use of the 1998 and 2006 soil field survey and analysis of data, the study area soil nutrients (soil organic matter, total N, alkaline hydrolysis N, available P, available K) characteristic analysis; 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology and geostatistics as a research tool, select 345 sampling points, making the 1983 2006 soil nutrient partition map pieces, find out the evolution of soil nutrients in time and space; According to statistics from 1983 to 2006, natural, social, economic, to local realities select the natural and socio-economic aspects of a total of 17 specific indicators, The soil of the study area, the sustainable use of the analysis, a detailed analysis of the impact of the sustainable use of barriers, put forward the countermeasures of the sustainable use of soil resources of the study area. The main results of this paper include: 1) Summary of the study of the spatial and temporal variability of soil nutrients at home and abroad Fisher traditional statistical methods: only summarized the complete picture of changes in soil characteristics, and does not reflect the local variation of the spatial location of the observations are not seriously, the spatial distribution of soil characteristics in many cases it is difficult to describe exactly. Combination of GIS and statistical research methods: GIS has strong spatial data management functions, while the lack of spatial analysis capabilities of some of the problems; geostatistics has strong spatial analysis functions, but its spatial data management function is weak . The combination of the two can learn from each other, to give full play to their respective advantages. 2) to understand the characteristics of soil nutrient in different periods Gaomi 1983 to 2006, the statistical results of the soil nutrients showed that, in 23 years, the study area, soil organic matter, total N, available P, available K have different levels of increase, the rate of increase. The statistical results of soil nutrients, 23 years to the study area, soil organic matter, total N, available P, available K have different levels of increase, the rate of increase. Where organic matter content is the fifth level of the National Nutrition Classification 1983 - 2006 an increase of 46.41%; total N content in the case of the fourth level of the National Nutrition Classification, rich soil nitrogen content, an increase of 52.54%; alkaline hydrolysis N 34.76%; effective The magnitude of the P nutrient content changes, an increase of nearly five times the available P by the National Nutrient fourth level up to the second level; the available K changed insignificantly increased by 19.12%. Soil available P increased. Available P content increased with an increase in the amount of chemical fertilizer. 3) mastered the study area soil nutrient spatial and temporal evolution according to the 1983 and 2006 distribution of the results of the control of soil nutrient analysis, the increase in overall nutrients of the soil in the study area. 2006 area of ??the city most of the organic matter content of 12 ~ 15g/kg, accounting for 53.07 percent of the total area, compared to the area in 1983 increased by 47.5%; different soil N changes with the trend of organic matter, in 2006, the city's full N content of most of the region between 0.7 ~ 0.9g/kg, 49.64% of the total area; 1983,2006 alkaline hydrolysis N content of the city area between 60 ~ 80mg/kg; period of the study of soil available P increase maximum; 2006 study area soil available K mainly in the study area, Summer Town, Renhe Town, Kan town, Jiang Town, River Bluff town, such as most of the area between 80 ~ 120mg/kg, the total area of ??71.83 %. 4) identify barriers that affect the sustainable use of soil, and proposed the corresponding countermeasures and measures by the statistics of the natural and socio-economic aspects of the 17 indicators were obstacles sustainable use of the soil of the period from 1983 to 2006 Analysis results show that the per capita gross national product and gross agricultural production, forest coverage, compared with low agricultural inputs, low grain yields the constraints the soil continued use of the main obstacles. In view of the above sustainable use of soil barriers, this study proposes countermeasures of the sustainable use of 3 Gaomi soil. (1) to increase investment in agriculture, improving agricultural production environment, and promote the improvement of agricultural production and value. (2) strengthen water conservancy construction, improve the productivity of the soil. (3) to strengthen the forestry building, improve the ecological environment.