The Effect of Bio-fertilizer on Soil and Absorption to Cadmium & Copper of FuJi Apple Root
|School||Shandong Agricultural University|
|Keywords||bio-fertilizer cadmium copper|
The Effect of Bio-fertilizer on Soil and Absorption to Cadmium & Copper of FuJi Apple RootBio-fertilizer is a new organic fertilizer, which consists of varieties of nutrient, and it is abundant in organic matter with a long effect. The effect of bio-fertilizer to the soil in apple orchard was researched, and the chemical action of absorption and distribution of Cadmium and Copper in soil and apple plant was studied.The experiment was divided into two parts: the field experiment and the pot experiment. By contrasting the difference among the treatments of bio-fertilizer, pig-manure, straw and inorganic fertilizer, we studied the effect of organic fertilizer to the physical and chemical properties of soil, the soil fertility and microorganisms in the soil. The distribution of Cd and Cu in the apple plant, the concentration of heavy metals in the body of apple plant at different time, and the effect of bio-fertilizer to the absorption of Cd and Cu in the apple root were researched in the pot experiment. The results of the experiment were as follows:1. Applying organic fertilizer improved the soil structure, enhanced soil fertility and increased the quantity of microorganisms in the soil. Some characters of soil were investigated after applying organic manure to the soil. the results showed that the volume weight of soil minished, the soil capillary porosity increased, and the physical and chemical characters of soil improved. Adding manure increased the content of soil nutrient. Compared with check, the content of gein, available P, available K and total P increased notably. The application of bio-fertilizer increased the amount of soil bacteria, jungi and<WP=10>actinomycete, especially for the bacteria. This kind of manure also alleviated damage of Cd and Cu to edaphons. The effect of bio-fertilizer was the best among all of the treatments. The more the quantity of bio-fertilizer was used, the better the effect was.2. The investigation on properties of leaves indicated that the content of chlorophyll rose and specific leaf weight increased after fertilizing. The application of bio-fertilizer can increase the rigidity of apples and the content of soluble solid matter, and the capability for storage enhanced.3. The survey on transportation and distribution of HMs(heavy metals) in apple plant indicated that the decreasing order of HMs concentration in organs was: root>stem>tress>leaf. The transference sequence of these two metals was: Cd > Cu. The content of Cd and Cu in root far exceeded that in leaf, which showed that the absorption of HMs was influenced by position effect. The farther the distance between apple plant organ and soil was, the less the content of HMs in the plant body was. Ability of enrichment of root to Cu was bigger than Cd.4. The status of the time-related concentration accumulation and distribution of HMs in apple plant was as follows: the concentration of Cd & Cu in root and stem was at peak at the time of blooming of vernal treetop. The concentration of the two HMs in leaf was at peak at the time of growth of autumnal treetop.5. Within the specific limits, the adsorption of organic matter to Cd2+ and Cu2+ enhanced with the rising of pH. From pH 6 to pH 9, the adsorption rate of organic matter to Cd2+ went up rapidly from 10 percent to 99 percent, and reached to maximum at pH 9. From pH 3 to pH 6, the adsorption rate of<WP=11>organic matter to Cu2+ hoiked, and it came to 98 percent and became steady when pH was between 8 and 10.6. Organic matter reduces effective content of ion of heavy metals through adsorption and chelation. The bio-fertilizer contain plentiful organic matter, through strengthening the adsorption to the heavy metal ion of soil, the dissociate cadmium, copper content of soil reduced, and then the adsorption of apple root to ion of HMs dropped. The adsorption of bio-fertilizer to copper was stronger than cadmium.