Study on the Urban Construction of Qingdao during the Period Occupied by Germany
|School||Shandong Normal University|
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||During German Occupation Qingdao Urban construction|
The paper preliminary discussion of Qingdao early years, the planning and construction of the beginning of the German occupation of Qingdao city, Qingdao city expansion of the German occupation in the late period of the German occupation of Qingdao City architectural style and explore the Qingdao city construction success or failure of the German occupation, in order to be able to inspire today's urban construction. The main contents of a total of six parts: a rubber O events and Qingdao Opening Germany has long coveted Qingdao, after the completion of the site, diplomatic preparations for the encroachment of Qingdao in 1897 in November, Germany as an excuse, \Subsequently on March 6, 1898 with the Qing court signed the huge impact of Qingdao future \Which they will enter into a rubber O land lease contract, the tide level contract \The beginning of the German occupation of Qingdao Urban Planning (1898 to 1906), after the German occupation of Qingdao, this piece of land, careful planning, and ultimately the formation of the 1900 overall urban planning. 1900 Qingdao overall urban planning aggression and plunder attributes, but in urban planning in theory there available to learn from the experience: first in the planning of the urban road system, both machines to the various functional areas in series, and so region to form a self-coordination structure of the road network; Second German road landscape design, using the tactics of King and by the King; once again has valuable experience in the city's function zoning and structural planning. However, due to the German rulers of Qingdao construction is based on plunder and occupation, lack of planning the development of the regional vision to consider its drawbacks: first, rail-depth urban split on cities, not conducive to the various functional areas of organic links ; second road system planning lack of class distinction, resulting in uneven traffic load, so the local traffic too much pressure; dual military and economic aggression seriously interfere with and restrict the development of urban public space; Fourth, planning in hierarchical design different areas of environmental standards, caused by different level of urban construction, has led to strong ethnic contradictions; ignored self-improvement in the urban development of the city system is difficult to mutual constitute an organic whole; sixth aristocratic area The slums division, trigger the main reason of the social problems of the city. This fully reflects the contradictions in the process of urban modernization requirements colonial city building process. Third, the beginning of the German occupation of the city of Qingdao Construction (1898 to 1906), the German colonial authorities first solve the problem of the urban construction funds, the funds needed for the building from the German government investment and concession revenue. Second take effective land policy to prevent land speculation, great benefits, and to ensure that the urban construction land. Once again stepped up the construction of the city's external transport, the Qingdao port construction and Freeport system introduced Jiaoji railway repair through greatly improved the status of Qingdao in the coastal cities, promote the rapid rise of Qingdao, facilitating the aggression of Germany . The same time, the German rulers of the municipal building taken separately both the simultaneous construction guidelines, Qingdao urban construction in full swing. Dezhan late Qingdao city expansion (1906 - 1914) Dezhan late, with the increase of urban population, the city is also rich, urban planning early Dezhan increasingly unable to meet the development of the city German colonial authorities began to re-establishment of the overall urban planning to guide the city's development and construction, this will form the 1910 Qingdao urban expansion planning. Important consideration in planning the development needs of the business, divided from the city structure and layout of the road network are closely linked to the subject: first, to eliminate the partition boundaries specified in the original planning of China and Europe; Second, the planning and construction of the new port docks, increase port cargo handling capacity: expanding the port area near the commercial residential land, the formation of a commercial district; Fourth, in the north of the downtown residential land, properly designed to stay out of the new commercial district center position. German colonial authorities in crazy economic plunder, to intensify the implementation of cultural aggression. This period is the the Qingdao urban architectural style and scale of urban construction expansion period, which makes Qingdao has formed a complete urban form before the outbreak of the First World War. German occupation of Qingdao city architectural style (1898 - 1914) by Qingdao city building a typical representative of the classified analysis, summarized the seven types of architectural styles. One reflects the ruler's power and majesty of the administrative building, a typical representative buildings rubber O Governor's Building, the courts of the Police Department and the rubber O: building for economic and cultural aggression, its representative works Tak Wah Bank Christian churches and Germany and China in particular colleges and universities; public and social buildings, his masterpiece Qingdao Railway Station, the rubber O Observatory and the German field hospital; commercial entertainment buildings, its main representative works of Henry, Prince Hotel Tower Qingdao club, Huiquan Hotel Navy Hotel and medicine shops building; official residence, apartment living life the nature of the building, its representative building is the Governor's residence; six industrial buildings, its works represent Sifang Locomotive repair shop and slaughter processing plants; seven blocks housing the main building of the Chinese. , The characteristics of the German occupation of Qingdao city building and revelation Qingdao is an emerging Modern cities, Qingdao during German Occupation urban construction has distinctive features: first, Qingdao is a new city according to the theory of modern urban; second, Qingdao city the general policy of the beginning of construction, will clear the city;, Qingdao Urban Construction strict urban planning; laws to Qingdao city management; fifth German occupation, Qingdao city construction led by the German colonial government built in a typical European city, laying the tone for the development of modern Chinese Qingdao; sixth, and the province of Jinan and Yantai advanced; VII, during the German occupation of urban construction is deeply marked by the imprint of the colonial . The same time, the pros and cons of the German occupation of Qingdao city building, urban construction today provides important insight: First, the nature of the city around the direction of urban development and layout patterns;, urban planning is the basis of urban construction and leading; Third, the development of urban construction, urban management?