Research on Marketing in State-owned Hospitals in China
|Keywords||Public hospitals Marketing Mode Case Studies|
Background With the gradual deepening of the reform of the medical and hospital competition increasingly fierce, unified management by the state, the unified pay staff salaries country planned economy era is gone for public hospitals account for the dominance of the Chinese medical market . Pressure of self-financing business, the marketing concept is introduced more and more in the management of public hospitals. Itself has the characteristics of ethical, high-risk sexual difference, invisible, can not be stored, etc. due to the special nature of the medical market, medical services, in the process of providing medical services, information asymmetry, the special object of consumption, etc. For public hospitals, the business community proven model copied, apparently does not work. On the other hand, due to the health service system in China has its own characteristics compared with other countries, learn foreign hospital marketing management experience also need to give full consideration to their own situation, the trade-offs, the wheat from the chaff. The purpose of this article is to assess the current situation of the marketing and management of the public hospitals accounted for the medical market dominance, select one typical case in-depth analysis, summarized the mainstream of public hospitals in China marketing model, and analyze the effectiveness of the problem, giving hospital administrators and policy makers to provide a reference. The main application of the method in this study: (a) literature reviews and analysis through the collection of domestic and foreign literature, secondary data and research reports published corporate management circles at home and abroad for a public hospital or non-profit organization how for marketing research, understanding of marketing theory in the course of operation of public hospitals, while the marketing model of the domestic public hospitals mentioned in the literature preliminary summary. (B) key informant interviews on marketing strategies as well as the problems faced by the public medical institutions may take in-depth interviews. The interview subjects include the management of hospital leadership, clinical director of the hospital full-time market planning personnel. (C) case study by retrospective investigation of the marketing activities of the past four years at a public hospital, General Surgery, two surgical groups, to analyze the changes in the number of services, quality of service, efficiency of service and service costs, and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing activities, and understand the existing problems. Results: (a) the mode of public hospitals in China Analysis: depending on the focus of the marketing elements common marketing model of public hospitals in China: product marketing model to enhance the quality of medical services to single disease limit performance in the form of price marketing model for the main purpose of strengthening the referral channel marketing model and promotional marketing model as the main means of media publicity. Vary due to hospital scale, technical level, market positioning, and other factors, each marketing model has its advantages and limitations, only the in appropriate marketing environment can play a role. Mainly to improve the quality of medical services, such as: product strategy for all medical institutions greatly benefit the health of patients, but the heavy workload, slow effect, the to bring sharp increase in the number of patients is difficult in the short term; Another example is: strengthen primary care education and continuing education as the main way of channel marketing, and implemented only by the three A-level medical institutions with strong brands and technical characteristics, and is not suitable for small and medium-sized hospital. (B) Case Study: DF Hospital general surgical minimally invasive group in the past five years, co-operation by the hospital marketing department of general surgery minimally invasive group, adopted a series of marketing initiatives, in order to attract patients, the development department. First full-time marketing staff by the marketing department of the hospital to carry out minimally invasive surgery marketing environment analysis and understanding of the hospital the surrounding population and the economic environment, laparoscopic surgery market capacity and trends, competitor condition, patient population characteristics of critical information, and SWOT analysis, and clearly defined target market; then, take a variety of ways for product, price, channel, promotion, and other aspects, a combination of internal and external marketing. After a five-year marketing campaign, DF hospital volume and efficiency of laparoscopic surgery service significantly increased, no change of quality of service, service costs have risen, but lower than the control surgery group did not carry out the marketing. Overall, marketing and achieved certain results, but some problems also emerged during the run. Such as: clinical staff awareness of marketing is not strong, the marketing department understaffed workflow is not clear, less marketing funds, lack of process management and evaluation of results, and other marketing behavior. Learned from interviews with key informants, these problems prevalent in the marketing process carried out in public hospitals in the country. The root cause of these problems is that: weak of hospital marketing theory research, the lack of competition in the market due to and domestic public hospitals monopoly insufficient professional marketing talent within the hospital. Conclusion: From the perspective of hospital operators, to raise the level of the marketing and management of public hospitals, first, the introduction of foreign advanced ideas, combined with China's national conditions, to strengthen the domestic hospital marketing theory research; while the introduction of a system of professional managers to improve the level of marketing and management of public hospitals strengthen the marketing process management and results of the assessment; social capital investment in health care industry from the point of view of policy makers should be encouraged to promote the medical orderly market competition, at the same time should strengthen supervision of hospital marketing behavior.