Dissertation
Dissertation > Agricultural Sciences > Gardening > Fruit trees gardening > Berries > Grapes

Study on the Technique of Embryo Culture and Breeding of Grapes

Author PanZuo
Tutor LiaoKang
School Xinjiang Agricultural University
Course Pomology
Keywords grape hybridization between diploids hybridization between diploid and tetraploid embryo culture
CLC S663.1
Type Master's thesis
Year 2004
Downloads 201
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Reciprocal hybridization was made between the diploid grape and the tetraploid grape and between the diploid grapes with the diploid varieties: ‘Thompson Seedless’, ‘Rizamat’ ,‘Red Globe’ and tetraploid variety ‘Kyoho’. The normal breeding method of emasculation was followed to artificially pollinate the stigma. 35days to 75 days after the pollination, the hybridized and the self-pollinated embryos were cultured in different media by the technique of embryo culturing combining cryogenic treatment and beak cutting to get rid of the dormancy. Studies of the hybrid breeding and the culturing method were carried on during the process of developing and germinating of embryos. 5 stains include haematoxylin were compared to choose a best one for chromosome identification of the hybrid seedlings.The result indicated that the best sampling time for embryo development of the grape ‘Thompson Seedless’ by self-pollinating and maternal crossing is at 35 days after pollination., but there is no significant difference for germiantionin among all of the sampling time. The best sampling time for embryo development of the grape ‘Kyoho’ by self-pollinating and maternal crossing is at 55 days after pollination, and the best sampling time for embryo germination is at 60 days after pollination. The best sampling time for embryo development and germination of the grape ‘Rizamat’ by self-pollinating and maternal crossing is at 60 days after pollination. The best sampling time for embryo development of the grape ‘Red Globe’ by self-pollinating and maternal crossing is at 60 days after pollination, and the best sampling time for embryo germination is at 75 days after pollination. There is no significant difference in development and germination between the self-pollinated embryos and maternal crossed embryos of the grape ‘Thompson Seedless’ in all sampling time. The development percentage of the self-pollinated embryo of the grape ‘Kyoho’ is higher than the the maternal crossed embryo in all sampling time, but there is no significant difference in germination between the self-pollinated embryos and the maternal crossed embryos in all sampling time. There is no significant difference in development percentage between the self-pollinated <WP=8>embryos and the maternal crossed embryos of the grape ‘Rizamat’ in all sampling time, but the germination percentage of the self-pollinated embryo is higher than the the maternal crossed embryo in all sampling time. Among the self-pollinated and maternal crossed embryos of the grape ‘Red Globe’, the development percentage and germination percentage of ‘Red Globe’ × ‘Thompson Seedless’ are higher than the other’s in all sampling time.There is no significant difference for embryo development in MS and Nitsch’ basic media combined with 3% sucrose and 6% sucrose, but MS basic media combining 6% sucrose is suit for germination. Only a part of embryos had germinated in the media with 0.5mg/L GA3 treatment, surplus embryos germinated after the density of GA3 was enhanced later, and the density of 2.0mg/L improved germination significantly. The development percentages and the germination percentages of the hybrid embryos are directly ratio relevance to the development percentages and germination percentages of maternal embryos; it shows that the behaviors of development and germination of the hybrid embryos are similar to the behaviors of development and germination of maternal embryos. The high-temperature made an affect of repressing the growth of plants after germination. The high-density of hormone resulted in the emergence of malformed plants and slowed down the growth. The 2.0% proportion petinase in the 2.5% proportion of the mixed liquid with petinase and cellulase is suit for enzymolysising root tip of grape. The scattered cell of the enzymolysised root tip is good for staining chromosome. The haematoxylin is competitiver than ethylic acid carmine, Giemsa’s, carbolated fuchsine and refined carbolated fuchsine in chromosome identification of hybrid seedlings. 50 hybr

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