The Study of "Mutual Protection in Southeast China"
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||Boxer Movement Yangtze River Basin Western powers Anti-imperialist struggle The Qing government Local governors Southeast Political authority Liu Kun-yi De facto recognition of|
At the end of 19th century, Qing dynasty government make use of Yi-hetuan’s slogan " support Qing dynasty and destroy the foreigners", and blindly promulgate imperial decree to declare the war with those western powers.But in Shanghai, Liu Kunyi,Zhang Zhidong and other governors of southeast provinces negotiate with those powers and then make an mutual protection agreement to maintain the peace situation in southeast areas,which is opposed with the imperial decree dramatically. " mutual protection in southeast china " is a significant incident in the late period in Qing dynasty political history , and also have certain influence in chinese modern history.Yi-hetuan Movement, in essence, is one big case concerning with churches and missonaries, and is the continuation of chinese turning against foreign religion struggle in the past, while eight country allied forces’s invasion in China is also the continuation of the foreign armed interference in the church case. But, Qing dynasty government does not handle the case well,which causes two results that Yi-hetuan’s hatred foreigners violence behaviors develop continuously , and the contradiction between China and western powers become more complex. When Qing dynasty government could not destroy and prevent Yi-hetuan’s development in Beijing, Ci Xi announce that Yi-hetuan are " just people ", and " console "them, then arouse these boxer men to struggle with foreigners , so as to reach her exclusive purpose . On June 21,1900, Qing dynasty government issue her war declaration. For Ci Xi’s personal power desire , war declaration have much blindness. Before the declaration, Ci Xi control the" court <WP=54>meeting " whose duty is to decide start war or keep peace with those powers, she suppress the sound of reasonable ministers. In summer, 1900, when Yi-hetuan Movement strongly spread out in north china , in south,the different thing happened,with british plan and a big comprador, Sheng Xuanhuai’s contact, Liu Kunyi,governeror of Jiangsu and Jiangxi,Zhang Zhidong,governeror of Guangdong and Guangxi,and other governors of southeast provinces send for officials to cantact with the consuls who stationed in Shanghai and delegating for those western powers,then they make two agreement,one is " protection in southeast China ",the other is " protection of Shanghai rural and urban districts ". This is so called " mutual protection in southeast china " . Its appearance is absolutely not accidental, but common need of those southeast governerors and western powers, and the outcome of various forces’s complex contradiction.The reason why british government plan the agreement" mutual protection in southeast china "is that she want to protect her benefit in the valley of Changjiang River. At the end of 19th century when imperialism powers divide Chinese into pieces, England attain quite plentiful benefit, which result that the valley of the Changjiang River has become sphere of british influence actually. Here, England possess huge political advantage and economic benefit, her investment and trade are much bigger. When Yi-hetuan Movement develop promptly in north, England worried about that the raging fire of Yi-hetuan Movement will destroied it’s aggressing position in China and privilege. Besides, England carries out this agreement " mutual protection in southeast china " , still has a deeper reason of preventing other powers from intervening in the valley of Changjiang River in order to monopolize the valley of the Changjiang River. On the other <WP=55>hand, western powers mutual restriction is an important reason of the agreement appearance. After Qing dynasty government issue her war declartion, the reason why governors of southeast provinces still make the agreement with western powers is that: First, to defend the political, economic benefit of themselves; Secondly, to preserve east south areas , and then defend to Qing dynasty government stabilization. Of course,this agreement certainly base on their serious analysis of the strength contrast between China and f