The end of Qing funding for research
|School||Tianjin Normal University|
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||Educational Reform New-Style Schools Educational Fund Late Qing China|
During the late Qing Dynasty, Chinese education experienced the transition from the traditional period to the modern one. In 1901, the beginning of New Deal in late Qing Dynasty promoted the educational reform which focused on abolition of the imperial examinations and initiation of schools. And then, a series of important reforms was carried out. In 1903, Qing Government promulgated "Guimao Xuezhi"; in 1904, the institution and corresponding underling taking charge of education were set up; in 1905, the imperial examinations were abolished formally, at the same time, education department and modern central educational administrative institution were established. The establishment of schools was popular in national wide. The rapid development of school focused on new-style educational institution, which promoted transition of Chinese education.During the rising of school education in late Qing Dynasty, the collection of fund was an important problem that was concerned with some social aspects. The collection of fund included five means they were government financing, public donation, heritage of schools’ assets, temple financing and private donation, which provided the schools with financial support. By contrast with old-style schools, the distinctive characteristic of new ones is the charge of tuition. With the development of those new-style schools, the tuition was put on the agenda. The system of tuition was gradually improved, however, it raised the cost of education, which caught wide social attention.The period of educational transition was actually a process of educational resource’s redistribution in which a lot of conflicts arose. With respect to the tuition, in spite of great efforts made by both authority and people of mass, the source of educational fund was very limited, in addition, the fund could not be used properly, which hindered the further development of new-style education. Different groups competed with each other for the rights of establishing and running schools, which virtually redistributed benefits of theirs during the development of new-style schools. From the perspective of the problem of tuition, we can understand fully the complexity of educational reform in late Qing Dynasty.