The Study on Nixon Government’s Policy Toward the Republic of Korea
|Keywords||Vietnam War Nixon Doctrine American-Rok relationship Park Chung-Hee|
Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th President of the United States (1969–74). During his administration,American foreign policy had experienced great changes. After the second world war, the United States, Which had expanded its influence throughout the world, implemented“Cold War”policy in order to contend for hegemony with the Soviet Union. American armed forces intervened in the disputes of Korea and Vietnam successively.In the late 1960s,The United States was involved too deeply to withdraw from Vietnam War. When Nixon took his office, The United States was in a hole. In the competition with the Soviet Union, the Americans was in the dry tree and its international status declined dramatically. To break away from the excruciating condition as soon as possible, Nixon government started to adjust its foreign policy, especially its foreign policy toward eastern Asia. As a result, the“Nixon Doctrine”came into being.The regime of Republic of Korea (RoK), as an ally of the Americans, under the wing of the Americans and was shocked by the change of Nixon’s new policy, which set retreat from Vietnam and unloading the unbearable burden of war as the main aims. The RoK, which was one of important areas where there were lots of American forces, became an important object of American retreated forces policy. Nixon government decided to decrease American armed forces in RoK, and while intensify economic and army aid toward the RoK in order to offset the impact on the RoK for American forces retreat and to strengthen the defence force of the RoK. With the successful retreat from Vietnam and the gradual détente between America and the people’s Republic of China, American international condition was improved.And eventuanlly, Nixon government transformed it foreign policy toward the RoK. In pursuit of the balance of power of American superiority in Korea peninsula, Nixon government abandoned the policy with a intention to retreat all American armed force from the RoK in the end. Under the background of the détente of sino-American relationship and beginning with Vietnam war , basing on the documents of foreign relation of Nixon government being released recently, this essay try to study the formation, development, evolution and consequence of Nixon government’policy toward the RoK, as well as the factors which had effected Nixon government’policy toward the RoK. Meanwhile,the essay try to find out the characteristics of American east Asia policy adopted by the United States during this period, the general law to be summed up from the alternations of the RoK-America relationship and the enduring impacts of its foreign policies toward the RoK.The entire essay is composed of four parts. The first part reviews the previous research works on this issue and makes comments on the shortcomings of them. The second part narrates the evolution of American foreign policy toward Korean region before Nixon’administration. Specifically, my pen shifts from American foreign policy toward the RoK before and during Korea War, then to the establishment of US-Rok affined relationship, and last to the Vietnam War and the alteration of American foreign policy toward the RoK. In this part, the emphasis is placed on the establishment of US-Rok relationship and confrontation and cooperation between two states during the period of Vietnam War.From a comprehensive perspective, the third part discusses the Nixon’s foreign policy toward the RoK. It covers the background of Nixon’s policies toward the RoK, the formulation of these policies, the influence of bilateral dialogue between China and America about the US-RoK relationship, the alterations of Nixon’s administration policy and their consequences. In this part, more attention is paid on the formulation of Nixon’s policies and the influence of bilateral dialogue between China and America.In an all-round way, the fourth part analyses Nixon’s administration foreign policy toward the RoK. This part highlights the characteristic of its policy, which is compared with the American foreign policies toward the RoK before Nixon’s presidency, and reveals the realistic characteristics of the American policy toward the RoK. The last part is a conclusion.