|Course||Ancient Chinese Literature|
|Keywords||YuanZhongdao KexuezhaiJi thoughts theoretics works association with|
The research object of this dissertation is Yuan Zhongdao, who is one of“Gong’an Sanyuans”in Late Ming Dynasty.As the main body of Group of Gong’an that ever had important literary effect ,“Gong’an Sanyuans”had much common ground on literary viewpoints, the style of poems and essays, the colony that affiliated with, and so on. Therefore it is a long time that people only study Yuan Hongdao who is the most representational among them as their attention when they research Group of Gong’an, but Yuan Zhongdao has many his own particularities except for that much common ground alike Yuan Hongdao.This dissertation emphasizes particularly on the study of Yuan Zhongdao who is not enough concerned with, in order to give a more impersonal and veracious review and critique.This dissertation has four sections:Section one, more systemicly investigates Yuan Zhongdao’s ideology status, especially his dense Buddhistic and zen thoughts. Zhongdao’s Buddhism idea runs through his literary works. We can make out many phases by analysis and comparability from zen to Pure Land Sect, from“real reference and true investigation”to practices of Huanyuan Scripture. In late period, the tendency of zen of predestined relationship also comes forth.. Behind of these changes, reflects the Zhongdao’s relative’s conscious induction. It also relates to the fact that many Zhongdao’s relatives and close friends died not very old. Because Zhongdao failed again and again in imperial examinations ,he accepted some Tao ideology, which admired Tao Hongjing as his spiritual idol, advocate living in the mountains to escape reality, enjoy the life style of traveling mountains and rivers, and idea of dealing with social life embodied the philosophy of“receding and hiding”of Tao. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism are separated from each other among Zhongdao’s ideology but also synthesis each other to some degree. The result of integration is“Three Religion Syncretism”of Zhongdao.Section two, probes into the literary theoretics of Yuan Zhongdao. The viewpoint of Zhongdao has phases. the process of evolvement can be recapitulated as following: from affirmation of“express yourself”in early time to the transition of“rather be vulgar than be pattered”, and then change to advocate“connotation and be latent”. In the construction of Zhongdao’s poems and essays, he regards“change”as the base of development for viewpoint of poem and essay to form his own theoretics of poem and essay with core of“Jingguang”theory, which echoes the theory of“Xingling”of Zhongdao’s eld brother, Yuan Hongdao. In the aspect of upholding and learning poem, Yuan Zhongdao also brought forward the theory of“uphold Tang Poem”and“learn from Tang Poem”. He summarized deeply on the learning of Tang Poem for the Former and Latter Seven Poets and Group of Gong’an.Section three, researches Zhongdao’s collection of poems and essays Kexuezhai Ji detailedly and analyses more comprehensively all of his works.The poesy of Zhongdao can be divided into two periods: the former period and the latter one. The poesy style of former period gives priority to fresh and smooth. The latter style is changed to hammer-harden words and sentences and tries to make the poems contain artistic conception deeply. But the leading style that impenetrates the former and latter is still fresh and frank, paying attention to express personal true temperament. At the same time, there are many disadvantages in Kexuezhai Ji: everything be easily written into poems, playing with poems, poems is ruined by vulgar and imprudent words, and so on. All of these problems the dissertation makes dialectic analysis. Zhongdao’s achievement on essay is bigger than poesy. Particularly“three records”(biography, itinerary, diary) among the essays, their styles are different from each other: biography—they are highly careful portraying minutia; itinerary—they are full of tang of living; their language is elegant and delicate; diary—Zhongdao splashed the words at will, briefly and charmingly. Frankly speaking, Zhongdao’s achievement on poesy and essay can’t be undervalued and ignored by no means, especially the part of essay deserves studying and using for reference in many aspects.Section four, studies Zhongdao’s tutor and friends by researching his personal intercourse, including his spiritual tutor—LiZhi, his tow eld brothers—Yuan Zongdao and Yuang Hongdao who impacted great literal and spiritual influence on him. What’s more, the dissertation choose two important and close friend among Gong’an Group—QiuChangru and HuangHui. And the dissertation studies their base of intercourse and important occurrence from“personal disposition”and“culture of Buddhism”. Zhongdao also held many massive literary assemblies with central government officials and provincial literators. This kind of mass literary exchange and activities helps to propagandize the literary theoretics of Gong’an Group, helps to know other different literary opinions and writing styles from other literary factions, helps to impersonally think of the works and theoretics of poesy and essay of Gong’an Group. Intercourse with shaman colony is just a way of Buddhism learning and practice, which makes Zhongdao’s Buddhistical ideology much stronger.The dissertation tries to see about the whole Gong’an Group by researching Yuan Zhongdao. At the same time, we study Yuan Zhongdao within the entire research frame of Gong’an Group, and to locate Zhongdao’s status in Gong’an Group. This must help to know Yuan Zhongdao roundly and further the study of Gong’an Group.