The Research on Doctrine of Mind of Li Fu
|Keywords||Li Fu Doctrine of Mind Neo-Confucianism Qing Dynasty|
At the turn from Ming to Qing, great changes had taken place in Chinese academy. Cheng-Zhu Rationalist Neo-Confucianism resurrected and then became an kind of regime ideology. However, it didn’t develop for lack of creativeness. With inheriting the practical Learning style of Qing, Qianjia Sinology sprang up and became the mainstream of learning. On the contrary, Wang’s learning began to ebb from its momentous tide due to the ill reputation—“Idle talks solve no problems”.Li Fu, a local general and gave service to three great emperors——Kang Xi, Yong Zheng, and Qian Long, came on the stage at this climate of early Qing period. With sublime human dignity and his achievements of learning, Li Fu played an important role in revising and developing wang’s school.Li Fu’s study had changed from poetry and prose to Lu & Wang’s Learning, and then to Sinology. Meanwhile, he was influenced by Cheng-Zhu Rationalistic Neo-Confucianism. All of these experiences were the source of Li Fu’s thought. His official life affected his Utilitarian Teachings and his doctrine of mind.After Sun Qifeng and Huang Zongxi, two Confucians in the period of Emperor Kang Xi wrote Biography of Neo-Confucian Masters and Volumes of Ming Confucians. Li Fu compiled Academic Record of Master Lu. This book implied that Lu & Wang School’s doctrine of heir was formed. His another book was Comprehensive Consideration of Master Zhu’s Later Years. This book indicated that Zhu Xi’s later years’learning belonged to Lu Xiangshan School. Therefore, Lu & Wang School’s doctrine of heir was firmed.Li Fu’s doctrine of mind comprised four parts, namely, the concept of destiny, the theory of Ko-Wu , the relationship between mind, nature, principle and ether, and the utilitarian teachings. Li Fu used the ether—the concept of Cheng-Zhu Rationalistic Neo-Confucianism to establish his system that mind was substance. His theory of Ko-Wu attached importance to practice. It also showed to people that“action is prior to knowing”. His concept of destiny provided dialectical and enterprising spirit and a view of life with the righteousness of Confucian School. Li Fu’s doctrine of mind was permeated with the feature of Utilitarian Teachings and Practical Learning.Li Fu’s doctrine of mind absorbed the concept and research method from Cheng-Zhu Rationalistic Neo-Confucianism and Sinology. In the Mind School, he highly praised Lu Jiuyuan and rectified Wang’s Learning. He advocated that practice was very important and one’s behavior should be in accordance with his study.However, Li Fu’s doctrine of mind had some disadvantages. First, it was short of enlightenment and speculation. Second, the learning character was confused. He mediated the argument between Cheng-Zhu and Lu-Wang for it has absorbed the concept of Cheng-Zhu Rationalistic Neo-Confucianism. He attached importance to textual criticism of the ancient classics and united it to Lu & Wang’s Learning that had adapted to the tendency of that learning climate. So Lu & Wang’s Learning developed itself by its internal logic. After the baptism of Real Learning, Lu & Wang’s Learning was accepted by the academic circles and worked in concert with the Practical Learning and New Revolution.In short, Lu & Wang’s Learning resurged and got new lease on life after the academic circles’criticism and summary. Li Fu was one of the key figures. He was an heir of the doctrine of mind and he had made important contributions to the continuation of the doctrine. A new milestone of Lu & Wang’s Learning was established by Li Fu’s learning and personality.