The Influence from the Off-Farm Employment in the Rural Land Managing Institutions
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Course||Population, Resources and Environmental Economics|
|Keywords||land rental market off-farm employment influence factors quantitative analysis rights|
At present, our countryside is faced to two problems. One problem is the reduction of the amount of land resource: With the faster development of urbanization, the cultivated land is gonging on reducing. Based on the investigation of the National Land Bureau from 1990-1994, the area of the cultivated land is reducing in the speed of 940 ten thousand mu every year. While the amount of undeveloped cultivated land is only 1.94 billion mu. The other problem is the wasting usage of rural land: this problem is relating to the low revenue from the rural land management that leads to the low income of peasants. And the land utilization of making the land smaller and smaller, the abandoning of unused land, which are the ineffective ways of managing rural land, are very serious in some places. To solving both of them, our country implementing the policy of rural land rental market in sticking to the HRS (Household Responsibility System). In this way, effective using rural land making the high income.The rural land rental market is an effective way to resolve the land utilization of making the land smaller and smaller and leaving the land unused in our country at present, having an important function to optimize the land resource allocation, improve the land utilization efficiency, promote the agricultural structural adjustment and promote the increase of peasants’ income and the rural economy.At present, the amount of labor is increasing more than 1000 ten thousand every year in the courtside. While our country still exist 5 billion labors and the agricultural production only needs about 1 billion labors. The obvious way is to allocate the over plus labors to the off-farm market which comes into the off-farm employment. Then how the off-farm market will affect in the rural land market and the following effect in the future land institution? And meanwhile the land rental market is inactive, and the majority of the farmland is still in the scatter management of the small scale. Therefore, besides of the off-farm market, the systematical study on the other various factors undoubtedly has important social efforts for advancing the development of the rural land rental market. The paper is to study these key issues. The article will be divided into five parts as follows: The first part of the dissertation is an introduction, which covers the background, actuality. This paper studies the problems, the framework and means.The second part deals with the profile of the rural land market. It introduces the legal character, existing problems, reasons and the principle of the rural land market.The third part investigates land rental market and rural off-farm employment. It includes the supply and the need of the land rental market, the reasons of the off-farm market and the relationship between the off-farm employment and the rental land rental market.The forth part analyses the relationship between the rural land market and the rural labor market. This paper adopts binary choices- probit model. The data is based on the sample investigation on the farmers in Nanjing City and Baoying County. Using this method and this data, we study the relationship. Meanwhile, this paper analyses other various influence factors such as education level of farmers, the income from the land and governmental function. And through the marginal effects of certain variables, it gets the effects in the expected probability.The fifth part is the article’s conclusion, which shows the future rural land institutions becoming more ownership. Because the land rental market makes the farmers needing rental land transferring right, that is dealing right which can indicate the characters of the ownership.