A Study on the Academic Degree System of the United States
|School||Wuhan University of Technology|
|Course||Educational Economy and Management|
|Keywords||academic degree system management of academic degree the United States|
The United States is one of the most developed countries on higher education around the world. American academic degree system with a tendency of maturity and perfection has developed for more than one hundred years, and it has made enormous contribution for making the higher education of U.S a steady leader in the world. It’ s only more than 20 years so far since the academic degree system of our country established in 1981. With the fact that the higher education of our country steps into the popular stage, there emerges great inadaptability between the academic degree system of our country and the development of higher education in our country. It can be seen from the following aspects: too much government authority in the degree conferral rights, degree structure imbalances, lack of social resources and so on. "A rock from another mountain can be used to chisel your own jade." A thorough analysis on American academic degree system can inspire us to reform our academic degree system and build up an onward academic degree system with strong Chinese characteristics. The paper roots from the introduction of the academic degree system, and then, sums up its three major characteristics on the basis of a detailed analysis of the American academic degree system and its standards, the management on degree conferral right and quality guarantee system of the degrees in the U.S.American academic degree system has a tendency of multi-layer degree, a tight contact with enterprises and internationalization after its two stages of imitation from European academic degree system and independent evolution. It involves associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree and doctor’s degree. The degrees are mainly awarded by universities whose conferral rights are applied from state legislatures. America is a typical decentralized country and its special polities, economy and culture make the three principal parts co-existe in this quality guarantee system of higher education. That is, government, society and Higher Institution. The government refers to them an management department of higher education while underlies the federal or state government, then the society indicates variety of civilian organizations, and the Higher Institution takes the evaluation for itself. American academic degree system presents its American characteristics: multi-level grading degree and explicit degree standards, degree-granting autonomy and the integrated quality guarantee systems, the official close indirect control and significant role of civilian organizations in the area of quality guarantee system for higher education, which inspires us to reform the academic degree system in China. That is, add a new level and focus on the development of professional degree, encourage the university to highly govern itself while the government bates its conferral rights, make the quality guarantee system for higher education perfect with gaining more social factors.