Application Research of the Accrual Basis in Our Government Accountant
|School||China University of Geosciences|
|Keywords||Accrual Government Accounting Fiduciary duty|
The basis of accounting is used to determine when to recognize standard or basis of accounting matters, and what matters should be recognized. For government accounting, the use of different accounting basis to a large extent affect their features and functions affect the government departments categories of financial and budget information, scope and report in a timely manner, and thus the public financial management and decision-making important and different effects. The traditional basis of accounting generally divided into a cash basis and Accrual system has two kinds, the accrual is based on whether the transaction itself occurs as a standard of identification and documentation of transactions, applies to the handling of cash transactions and balance has been widely used in the corporate accounting and reporting, cash basis system based on cash receipts and payments as confirmation, recording and reporting transactions applies to the handling of actual cash flow transactions, in the early emphasis on control of cash cash basis expenditure of government accounting system used by more common. With the changes in the environment, cash basis based accounting basis increasingly unable to meet the management requirements of government departments in the new situation. After 1998, especially after entering the 21st century, China's political and economic environment of great changes have taken place, had a profound impact on government accounting. Especially financial functions, budget management, financial capital movement and budgetary accounting information needs are significant changes, ills have become increasingly prominent cash basis and accrual applied to the management of modern government, with a cash basis system incomparable superiority. Accrual is the inevitable trend of new public management, but also improve the efficiency of government operations in China, the establishment of an inevitable requirement of modern government management system. Sound and transparent government accounting building is the cornerstone of good government sector governance, the introduction of accrual is key to the government to fulfill public accountability as the core accounting management. China should learn from international experience in reform, to carry out the accrual basis of accounting reform with Chinese characteristics \-style \. The article is divided into five parts: the first part is the introduction. Mainly to explain the background of the topic, to form an opinion affect large literature review, as well as the significance of the study in this article the author. The second part is the theoretical basis for analysis and the definition. Firstly introduces the characteristics of governmental organizations, government accounting meaning of this paper, the definition of government accounting; then introduced based on the meaning and characteristics of government accounting recognition; Finally, the theoretical foundation - the principal agent theory and the new public management theory and the revelation of these two theoretical basis of accrual accounting reform of the system of government. The third part is our government accounting recognition of the problems and the basis of the status quo. The Government Accounting confirm the basis of the provisions confirm the basis of the creation, development and the different stages of the laws and regulations of government accounting; cash basis to confirm the basis of government accounting and from the macro level. The fourth part of the introduction of accrual accounting system of government overall vision. In foreign developed countries reform model based on the idea of ??the overall reform of the system of government accounting procedures of accrual; Then stage, the core stage of reform and facilities from the conditions to create three aspects of the promotion of reform measures, and focus of accrual system of government accounting system, the introduction of accrual mode - start with government accounting gradual introduction of the Government's financial reporting and the preparation of accrual-based, when the conditions are ripe, the last to be The full introduction of accrual in the government budget. The fifth part is the accrual system in government accounting. First of all, in the area of ??government accounting introduced accrual specific class of assets, liabilities, income and expenses; then studied the financial report based on the accrual-based government, foreign governments and financial reporting architecture and Chinese enterprises financial reporting structure experiences of other countries, combined with the specific circumstances of the country, re-establishment of the Chinese government financial report, new financial reports, a total of five parts, namely government audit report, the main table of government financial statements, the Government Financial Statement Schedules, Government Notes to Financial Statements, Management Discussion and Analysis and other information; explored after the government budget introduction of accrual envisaged, designed on the basis of analysis of fiduciary responsibility and accrual-based budgeting relationships accrual budget framework, which is to be determined according to the department functions departments single output indicators, according to the department budget management and reporting requirements of the sector as a whole output indicators project, and then determine the sector outcome indicators and performance indicators, and ultimately to achieve favorable to the government performance evaluation budget management model; Finally, through a simple case of the specific application of the accrual. The main contributions and innovations are: first, from the principal-agent theory and the new public management theory point of view of the revelation of accrual system of government accounting reform; Secondly, according to China's national conditions of China's accrual Government accounting reform the basic idea - a progressive phased step-by-step reform model and studied the various stages of issues to be addressed and the measures to be taken; Third, the government accounting system in China to build the basic idea that \a system, a system of government accounting system framework; Fourth, the area of ??government accounting accrual, accrual from several major categories of assets, liabilities, income and expenses specific the introduction of measures; Fifth, research based on the accrual system of government financial report, and the new government financial reporting framework; sixth, fiduciary duty accrual budget, in accordance with the requirements of the department budget accrual budgeting framework design; Seventh, the use of case studies of the application of the accrual of government accounting.