Dissertation > Agricultural Sciences > Crop > Cereal crops > Rice

To Promote the Protection of New Varieties of Rice Breeding Innovation Policy Research

Author ChenHong
Tutor ZhengJinGui
School Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Course Sustainable Development and Extension
Keywords Rice EDV Genetic diversity Fingerprint New plant varieties protection UPOV
CLC S511
Type PhD thesis
Year 2011
Downloads 214
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The right of new plant varities is one form of the intellectual property rights. As the fundamental elements of protection system for agriculture intellectual property, new plant variety protection system is a guaranteeing system to accelerate the innovation of agricultural breeding, to improve the international competitive capacity of agricultural products, as well to safeguard the sovereignty over agriculture and safety overplant germplasm resources. The new plant variety’s protection appears especially important, to encourage breeders to develop new varieties of plants for building a modern seed industry and promoting agricultural science and technology.Rice is the most important food crops, shouldering the heavy responsibility to ensure the grain safety in China. Progress of support science and technology raises rice production in per hectare is an inevitable choice for ensuring food safety in china. Improve the yield of rice is the most effective to accelerate thoroughbred breed, promotion and application. Modern science and practice show that every time the rice breeding breakthrough is closely linked with the exploitation and utilization of rice germplasm innovation. Breeding innovation is the key to obtain fine varieties of rice.Since the dwarfing breeding in the late 50th century and heterosis utilization at the middle of the 70th century, our country paddy rice yield per unit to realize two time leap, but after 80 time metaphase, rice yields has been no new breakthrough.Currently, the researchers to affect crop breeding innovative research are mostly applied in germplasm resources and breeding excavation technology innovation and increasing investment level, few people from the establishment of a sound management system and technical standards related to the angle of the analysis. In fact, compared the influence of the three major factors in breeding innovation, the system construction technology and investment compared to more far-reaching impact, and the effect of incentive breeding innovation is more obvious.This study based on the current main promotion and application for protection of rice varieties related data, analyzes the following questions:the rice breeding in China there are genetic basis narrow, germplasm resources utilization level is not high, mostly in the low-level varieties bred to repeat, the original breeding enthusiasm for innovation not enough, companies involved in breeding innovation power shortage. It also analyzes the defects of the system of new plant variety protection is cause of examination, test and tort disputes in the process of difficulty of the source of the problem. Due to the breeding process is simple, takes less time and breeding targeted, the use of the current main varieties bred little can quickly transform the new so-called independent intellectual property varieties. The direct consequence of this mechanism makes the large number of breeding units lack of motivation for investment in breeding research.How to protect Essential Derived Varieties (EDV) has become one of the universal concerned theoretical problems and important practical problems in the practice of new plant varieties protection of all countries these years. Essentially derived variety system has already caused the intense attention of the society. On the basis of the international breeding innovative models and the advanced management experience of the developed country, we have given some suggestions to strengthen our protecting system of innovation of new plant varieties; Establishment of substantial current incentive system is innovative core tasks to encourage the rice breeding innovation. The study also applies for protection of the 949 copies of our regular species and hybrids of rice for SSR analysis. From the DNA level we have once again proven the genetic base of rice breeding is increasingly narrow, and the lack of original breeding innovation. Through analysis of their genetic diversity and fingerprinting mapping and combination with pedigree breeding and field results of DUS test reports on the basis of comprehensive analysis. Finally, the establishment and improvement of material derived from varieties of systems, improving testing technical measures of new varieties to establish standards of the substantive derived species identification. According to these we put forward to the specific policies and measures for promotion of innovation in rice breeding.The results are as follows:1 Proved our country rice breeding innovation power insufficient system rootThe study analysis rice genetic pedigree, including application bulletin 2214 rice varieties which are from the scientific research and teaching, enterprises and individuals from 1999 to 2010, and 71 the super rice which are from the main rice varieties, approvaled by Ministry of Agriculture from 2005 to 2009, in the author’s opinion our country around the core germplasm basic transformation of rice breeding has become more and more obvious, the original innovation power insufficient rice breeding. To combine economic management theory analysis, rice original breeding innovation force inadequacy is closely linked to plant new variety protection system is not perfect in our country. Strengthening the protection of new varieties of plants system innovation is the core task for motivating rice breeding innovation in China.2 Analysis the genetic diversity of main rice varieties 24 selected SSR primers were used in PCR amplification of 949 tested rice cultivars to identify genetic relationship. The resulted showed that 211 bands with distinct, good repeat ability and polymorphic were amplified. Through constructing the unrooted neighbor-joining tree of 409 accessions of inbred rice and 540 accessions of hybrid rice based on Nei’s genetic distance using data for 24 SSR loci, it is very easy to distinguish indica cultivars and japonica cultivars. The result also showed that conventional rice and hybrid rice had a distant relationship, genotype was significantly different, there is a great difference between the genotype genetic.3 Construction the DNA fingerprint map for main rice varieties in our countryA DNA fingerprint database containing genotypic data of 949 rice variety times 24 marker loci, was constructed. DNA fingerprinting is a useful tool for the registration and identification of new cultivars, the protection of cultivars’ rights and evalution of genetic diversity. The results also laid the foundation for the new plant variety scientific approval and variety right science and law enforcement.4 Put forward to promote rice breeding innovation policies and measuresOn the basis of the international breeding innovative models and the advanced management experience of the developed country, put forward to promote the countermeasure of innovation in rice breeding. Considering the modify the regulations cycle is long, in the short to medium term, could be considered to be essentially derived varieties authorized to take 3 to 5 years of quarantine administrative measures. Through the revision of rice DUS testing guidelines limit productive role traits and regulation characteristics distance to control the specificity judgments and other technical measures; in the long term, our country should be revised regulations and establish the system of essentially derived variety.5 Discuss the rice essentially derived varieties identification standardThe DNA identification of genetic similarity reaches 96% of the total 164 species with field test results for DUS and pedigree analysis, according to our current situation of rice breeding, the 96%-98% can be used as identification of essentially derived variety threshold. The genetic similarity is lower than 96%, can be judged as not essentially derived varieties; when genetic similarity coefficient is higher than the 98%, can be judged to be essentially derived varieties; when genetic similarity coefficient between 96%-98%, DUS needs to be further combined with field test result.6 Put forward rational suggestions of rice breeding in China On the basis of analyzing the difference between UPOV 1978 Act and UPOV 1991 Act, combining with the current situation in breeding, the author put forward that the short appearance combined rice breeding strategy should to be established in our country. First of all, China formulate regulations framework in accordance with the UPOV 1978 Act, did not build essentially derived variety system. In the short term, China should actively introducing the foreign academic resource, through some short smooth fast breeding method including physical radiation, chemical mutation, backcross, system breeding and so on, in order to breed some rice germplasm resources, apply for plant variety right as soon as possible, and obtain a complete independent intellectual property rights. Secondly, in view of the foreign varieties in our adaptive problems, from the point of view, foreign germplasm resources should also hybridized with the local fine varieties at the same time, obtained a great deal of fine varieties which are suitable for popularization in our country. At last, in view of it is an inevitable trend to access the UPOV 1991 text for plant new variety protection system, our country should establish the long-term goal of rice breeding. Through the positive development of modern biology breeding technology, cultivating some breakthrough varieties which have great application prospect and independent intellectual property rights.It is not found in other studies on rice essentially derived system identification standard and systematic study; this study will fill gaps in the international, and which lays the policy preparation foundation for our country essentially derived variety system establishment, regulations of protection of new plant varieties revised and China’s accession to the UPOV 1991 Act, lays the technical preparation for plant variety rights scientific approval and the right of new plant variety law enforcement and lays the preparation for other crops essentially derived variety system and identification standard. There are only some principled provisions about EDV in UPOV 1991 Act at present, thus leaving a large room for various countries to make their own system design. In order to meet the challenge of UPOV 1991 Act, we’d better establish EDV system as early as possible.

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