Extraction, Purification and Antifungal Activity of Anthocyanins in Drop Fruits of Chinese Baberry
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Course||Of Food Science|
|Keywords||Chinese bayberry Drop fruit Athocyanins Extraction Purification Antifugal activity|
Chinese bayberry is a subtropical fruit native to China and grown in eastern and southern China. The fruit is very popular with consumers for its attractive red to purple color, appealing flavor and rich in vitamins and minerals and other nutritive properties. Chinese bayberry matures in the hot and rainy early summer season. The situation of drop fruits appears extremely frequently, and causes grate loss to the farmers for the Chinese bayberrys. As the fact, there is an urgent need to search for a more effective way to use the drop fruits of Chinese bayberries. In this paper, we studied the normal fruits and fallen fruits of Chinese bayberry(Myrica rubra sieb.et Zucc. Cv. Wumei). At the time studing the nutritive matter in normal fruits and drop ones, I investigate the effect of frozen storage on them. After that I focus on the extraction and purification of anthocyanins in drop fruits, and I investigate the antifungal activity of the anthocyanins aganinst the Botrytis cinerea. The main results and findings were summarized as follows:(1) I investigate the the drop fruits of Chinese bayberry during the harvest days in the garden. As the different ripe stages, which all most the drop fruits are mature and full ripe but some were unripe, the nutritive matter such as Vitamin C, total total phenolics, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins content are lower than the normal ones. The antioxidant ability of the drop ftuits are lower than the normal ones, such as the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and the reducing activity. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity did not show the obvious difference between the drop ones and the normal ones. After 5 months storaged at -18℃, fruits were frozen and several experiments were finished. The data shows that the content of anthocyanins in fruits dropped 43%, but there were still plenty of anthocyanins to use. The activity of the enzymes, such as PPO (Polyphenol oxidase) and PAL (Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) in the normal ones are the same as in the drop ones have lower nutriment, such as Vitamin C, total phenolics, total flavonoid and total anthocyanins, lower antioxidant ability, such as scavenging activities against of hydroxyl, DPPH radicals and reducing power.(2) The optimal extraction conditions of anthocyanins in bayberry in different ways were established. When the material was extraeted with 78.15% ethanol,0.5% citric acid, at 40℃for an hour and at the ratio of liquid to material (v/w) 10.06:1, the solvent extraction rate of anthocyanins was 93.73% respectively. And when the material was extraeted with 80% ethanol,0.5% citric acid, at 40℃for 2.68 min, ultrasound power was 422.19w and at the ratio of liquid to material (v/w) 11.44:1, the ultrasound-assisted extraction rate of anthocyanins was 88.93% respectively. The style of ultrasound-assisted extraction saved 57 minutes’time, but required another more 10% solvent.(3) The separation effects of five macro-porous resins(S-8, AB-8, NKAII, D-3520, LSA-21) on anthocyanins from bayberry were studied. It is found that the separation effects of LSA-21 was better. The optimal condition of LSA-21 was:the extraction concentration of bayberry was applied to LSA-21 macro-porous resin, eluted with distilled water and 60% ethanol at the natural flow rate and 60% ethanol elution was colleeted. The anthocyanins extracted from the ultrasound-assisted extraction were analysis from HPLC, and it was not destroyed from the style of the extraction.(4) Somewhat, the anthocyanins extract solution showed the antibacterial ability against Botrytis cinerea which collect from the Chinese bayberry, and it shows a new way to use the drop fruits of Chinese bayberry. The antifungal activity against botrytis cinerea increased significantly with the increase of the extract concentration. The inhibition rate reached 29.28%, when the extract concentration was 10%. As the extracts were distroyed at 55℃for 30min and 95℃for 15min, it was proved that the extract of anthocyanins from the drop fruits of Chinese bayberry were easily distroyed by heat.