Coupling Effects of Eco-economic System in Soil Erosion Region
|School||Fujian Normal University|
|Keywords||farmer households eco-economic system coupling benefits Changting County Zhuxihe basin|
Ecosystem degradation was one of the major environmental problems in recent years. Ecosystem fragility was just the primary factor, while excessive disturbance caused by unreasonable human activities was the continuous trigger for ecosystem degradation. Agriculture, combining natural reproduction and economic reproduction, was closely related to both ecosystem degradation and ecosystem rehabilitation. Rural household, the basic agricultural production unit in China, was the entity and direct stakeholder of regional ecological restoration. With the constraint of government policies and driving force of the economic interests, rural household behavior, resulted from farmer’s rational decision, was the coupling point between ecosystem and socio-economic system, and the fundamental factor to drive regional eco-economic system to couple and evolve. Therefore, this thesis employed theories such as ecological restoration theory, system coupling theory, rural household theory and eco-economic theory to systematically analyze rural households’ characteristic, the benefits of coupled modes and integrated effect of regional eco-economic system by field observations, remote sensing and household survey data. The main contents including:(1) Sampling survey indicated it was time to introduce regional eco-economic system coupling because of the dropping population pressure, aging population, non-agricultural transformation of employment and income, high proportion of land transformation, low farmers’willingness to use firewood and positive evaluation on soil and water conservation (SWC), while negative impact caused by households’ low income level, huge income gap and unclear property right was significant. (2) The enlargement and commercialization of agriculture was an important coupling mode of agricultural production. By analyzing households’survey data, the economic profits and its distribution of eight coupled production modes, i.e. different size cultivation of rice, tobacco, taro, tea, chestnut, myrica rubra, pig and duck were calculated. Feasibility index(FI)was created to estimate coupling modes’feasibility and to optimize modes. It was concluded that cultivation had significant economies of scale, but the moderate size, input-output ratio, profit balance coefficient and feasibility index varied obviously among the species. (3) Employing the opportunity cost analysis and the ecological footprint model, the spatial-temporal comparative analysis revealed that rural households’fuel revolutionary ladder-type had shifted from firewood to non-deforestation fuel. Fuel substitution makes enormous contribution to vegetation protection and eco-economic coupling for its remarkable eco-ecological benefit. (4) Cobb-Douglas function model of Changting’s agricultural production was established to calculate the contribution of SWC investment to agricultural economic growth, which solved the long-standing problem that contribution of non-SWC investment factors to regional economic growth can not be excluded. (5) The eco-economic system coupling effect was evaluated by introduction of PSR model. A suitable evaluation index system was established to describe the temporal-spatial variation on pressure, state, response of eco-economic system in Zhuxihe basin in the last ten years. It was confirmed that the eco-economic system in Zhuxihe basin was at the middle-late stage of ecological restoration process according to the level index and the coupling coordinate degree. (6) Based on farmers’ character, coupling-models’ efficiency and coupling integrated effects of whole basin eco-economic system, specific strategic measures were proposed to improve the strategy of eco-economic system coupling from R to K.