Studies on the Variations of Immune Effectors Involved in the Abalone, Haliotis Diversicolor Supertexta, under Different Conditions
|School||Ocean University of China|
|Keywords||Abalone abalone Vibrio infection Duress Immune defense factor Wild populations Cultured population Allozyme|
In this paper, abalone abalone infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the process as well as in hypoxia stress and starvation conditions, the body's cells and humoral immune defense factor changes, wild and cultured abalone abalone populations immune defense factors and biochemical genetic differences, etc. research. The results showed that the process of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection among abalone abalone blood phagocytes and lymphocytes in humoral immune factors play an important role in some of phagocyte respiratory burst phenomenon exists, respiratory burst of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen is killed off being swallowed heterologous biological factors; intracellular MPO will H2O2 into hypochlorous acid (hypochlorous acid, HOCl) and chloramines (chloramines, RNCl) and other secondary metabolites of oxygen, strengthening the bactericidal effect; intracellular ACP right foreign play digestion, degradation; CAT is actively involved in the intracellular intracellular oxygen radical quenching and scavenging; abalone abalone hemolymph lectin, lysozyme, phenol oxidase involved in anti-infection immune process, agglutination prime the immune recognition, immunomodulation, agglutination limit dissolution immune effects, lysozyme hydrolysis play Gram-positive bacteria is, the phenol oxidizing enzyme may be involved in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and immune recognition, cell proliferation abalone abalone enhanced by the presence immune effector mechanisms; addition, abalone abalone hemolymph also found immunoglobulin-like substance IgG-like, IgA-like, IgM-like, complement-like substance C3-like, C4-like, C-reactive protein CRP-like substance -like, etc., which the body fight infection and immune response has a certain relevance. Average weight of 14.25g ± 2.21g of abalone abalone water temperature of 22.1 ℃ ± 1.3 ℃, salinity was 30.72 ± 0.54, pH8.20 ± 0.14 seawater environments, dissolved oxygen content from 7.49 ± 0.14 mg · L-1 down to 2.53 ± 0.16 mg · L-1 did not see within 120 individuals died, while injecting infected with 5.0x105 cells-abalone-1 after 120h of Vibrio parahaemolyticus the cumulative mortality rate 91.11 ± 7.70%, compared with the control group 11.11 ± 3.83% of the total mortality rate was 80% higher hemolymph antibacterial clearance rate dropped to - (3340.47 ± 298.57)%, apparent hypoxia stress makes abalone abalone antagonize Vibrio parahaemolyticus significantly decreased resistance to infection . Hypoxia (2.53 ± 0.16 mg · L-1) stress, abalone abalone blood lymphocyte count (THC) decreased 30.62 ± 4.87%, decreased blood lymphocytes phagocytic rate 62.77 ± 5.79%, respiratory burst of superoxide anion number down 22.21 ± 5.89%. Abalone abalone under hypoxia stress MPO activity in blood lymphocytes increased 9.63 ± 7.59% ~ 22.90 ± 13.73%, CAT activity increased 7.68 ± 6.83% ~ 56.28 ± 13.96%, reflecting the abalone abalone under hypoxia stress stress response in vivo oxidizing substances produced intensified blood lymphocytes produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species. Dissolved oxygen levels ranging from 7.49 ± 0.14 mg · L-1 down to 4.51 ± 0.12 mg · L-1 after 120h abalone abalone cumulative mortality rate within 37.78 ± 3.85%, hemolymph inhibition rate dropped to - (883.56 ± 123.22 )%; THC, blood lymphocyte phagocytosis, respiratory burst of superoxide anion O2-quantity largest decline reached 12.51 ± 6.59%, 21.90 ± 15.84%, 12.93 ± 5.74%; MPO activity at the same level of - (10.61 ± 4.20)% -7.13 ± 6.45% fluctuation between, CAT activity - (5.17 ± 18.08)% ~ 16.26 ± 10.85% change between. When the water temperature 24.3 ℃ ± 1.7 ℃, salinity of 30.42 ± 1.63, pH value of 8.15 ± 0.11 environmental conditions, starvation 20d abalone abalone can still survive. In indigestion 5d, the abalone abalone hemolymph protein not only did not decrease, or even slightly increased, while the 7d, the abalone abalone hemolymph protein content gradually dropped substantially, inferred, abalone abalone starvation early and did not use protein as an energy source, and hungry after 7d, consume a lot of protein in the body is life-sustaining. Starvation state abalone abalone blood lymphocytes decreased phagocytic activity, respiratory burst blood lymphocyte levels drop, fluid lysozyme activity, agglutination activity decreased resistance to infection immune function decline. However, abalone abalone 5d time experiencing hunger, hemolymph antibacterial cleaning efficiency, blood lymphocytes phagocytic activity, respiratory burst blood lymphocytes produce superoxide anion levels, humoral immune parameters such as lysozyme activity have not only changed little, and sometimes even slightly elevated, indicating that abalone abalone have faced starvation stress adaptation mechanisms, hunger beginning, due to inadequate nutrition, enhance immune function by increasing the body to adapt to the environment, to protect themselves. Starvation lasts longer than 7d, this instinct adversity adapt methods and functions to maintain the nutritional status of the end result of a serious shortage of in vivo and in vivo excessive consumption of resources to change and recession. Starvation under the abalone abalone hemolymph lysozyme activity, decreased activity of coagulation protein content may be dropped by the fluid caused reduced intracellular particulate matter may be hemolymph lectin activity of lysozyme and weaken the direct cause . On wild and cultured abalone abalone populations of cells and humoral immune factors, the results showed that: abalone abalone farming groups and between groups of wild, farmed abalone breeding traits purification and rejuvenation groups and between groups of degraded immune factors and immune defenses were significant differences. Purification and rejuvenation farmed abalone populations (breeding 10 months, the individual size of 51.8mm ~ 59.2mm) activity of cells and humoral immune factors are significantly higher than the degradation of the breeding population breeding traits (breeding 20 months, the individual size of 37.4mm ~ 43.1 mm) p lt; 0.01), with wild populations (individual size is 67.7mm ~ 76.7mm) compared to pure rejuvenation groups abalone Baoti cellular immune factor higher activity than wild populations, humoral immunity factor activity was significantly lower than the wild groups. Abalone abalone in the phagocytic activity of blood lymphocytes induced respiratory burst of reactive oxygen species levels and abalone abalone their physical, environmental factors such as temperature and the number of foreign bodies have significant correlation p lt; 0.01). Ambient temperature dropped from 25 ℃ to 18 ℃, abalone abalone cells and humoral immune factor activity has significantly decreased. Degradation abalone abalone farming groups in the 25 ℃ and 18 ℃ temperature conditions hemolymph antibacterial activity level difference is not obvious. Phenol oxidase present in the hemolymph abalone abalone, but, activity level is not high, abalone abalone in all kinds of differences between the groups were not evident. Wild and farmed in Shenzhen, Guangdong Tateishi farmed and wild 4 SA abalone abalone populations eight kinds of 16 enzyme loci were detected allozyme analysis. Studies show that, as the standard to P095, the four groups of abalone abalone locus Sod-1, Aat, Me, Mdh-1, Est-1, Est-2 polymorphic, the proportion of polymorphic loci 37.5%; wild populations observed heterozygosity were: 0.1604 (Shenzhen Safari), 0.1604 (Nanao wild), breeding populations observed heterozygosity were: 0.1521 (Guangdong Tateishi farming), 0.1562 (Shenzhen farmed); wild populations expected heterozygosity as follows: 0.1697 (Shenzhen Safari), 0.1766 (Nanao wild), breeding populations expected heterozygosity were: 0.1534 (Guangdong Tateishi farming), 0.1557 (Shenzhen farmed); wild populations, the average effective number of alleles were: 1.3633 ( Shenzhen Safari), 1.3943 (Nanao wild), farming groups, the average effective number of alleles were: 1.3072 (Guangdong Tateishi farming), 1.3120 (Shenzhen farming). Abalone abalone wild genetic distance between populations: 0.0052, breeding genetic distance between populations: 0.0131,4 populations average genetic distance: 0.011. Comprehensive analysis that abalone abalone breeding population genetic diversity than wild populations, low differentiation among populations (FST = 0.0411, Nm = 5.8340).