Comparative Advantages, Locational Advantages and Regional Specialization of China’s Oil Planting
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Course||Agricultural Economics and Management|
|Keywords||Regional specialization Comparative advantage Farmers' planting decisions Endogenous Comparative Advantage|
After joining the WTO, the difficult situation facing our oil crops: continued growth in domestic demand, slow growth of domestic production, oil has become China's first major imported agricultural products, the domestic oil industry, the impact of foreign, while the acreage of oil crops in China about 4 million acres of the development of the oil industry is directly related to the employment and income of more than 400 million farmers in recent years by the impact of the international market, the downturn in the domestic market oil price, oil direct impact on our farmers and farm incomes. Enhance the competitiveness of China's oil crops put on the agenda of China's agricultural development strategy. In order to optimize the advantages of agricultural products of agricultural resource allocation and improve the competitiveness of China's oil-bearing crops, learn from the advanced experience of developed countries, our government is based on the principle of comparative advantage in 2002, prepared in 2007, 2003-2007, 2008 - 2015 \regional layout planning to the production of oil crops can be concentrated to the most appropriate production area, and improve the efficiency of resource allocation. According to economic theory, under the conditions of market economy, the market mechanism will be driven by agriculture in accordance with the principle of regional comparative advantage to adjust farming so that the efficient allocation of resources, the end result is a regional specialized production of different agricultural products, thus optimization of the layout of the existing regional more comparative advantage as a starting point calculated through various areas of comparative advantage, and puts forward the corresponding layout planning. After the market-oriented reforms, the degree of openness of China's agricultural constantly increasing and expanding the operational autonomy of farmers, agricultural continuously improve the efficiency of resource allocation, the ongoing adjustment of agricultural structure, at the same time continue to eliminate the role of obstacles hinder market mechanisms, according to common sense, which will inevitably lead to agriculture regional division of labor according to comparative advantage, but a recent study (Chang, 2002; Ye Chunhui, 2004; Kang Xia, 2005) have found that the presence of regional comparative advantages of China's agricultural production and regional specialization departure from the phenomenon. This can not help but make us doubt the effect of agricultural regional planning in accordance with the principle of comparative advantage. China's agriculture has been in place for about 30 years for the purpose of market-oriented reforms of deregulation, reducing market distortions, the Bureau of the regional distribution of not only but does not follow the principle of comparative advantage, specialization but there was a departure from the phenomenon, which is very worthy of our consideration. In this study, the regional distribution and regional division of labor will be oil crops farming in China as the research object, from the perspectives of the micro decision-making body, the macroeconomic environment, learn from neoclassical economics, the new economic geography, as well as the new classical economics theory building The layout of China's agriculture and the framework of the regional division of labor analysis study, in order to be able to provide new perspectives for future theoretical discussion and policy makers. In order to achieve these objectives, this research do the following work and draw the appropriate conclusions: 1 location relative specialization index estimates of all provinces, oil crops, regional specialization indicators. The study found that, since the reform and opening up, the status of the major soybean producing areas in the Northeast is more stable, Henan, Shandong, Guangxi became the major soybean-producing areas, but subsequent structural adjustment in Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei alternative. Peanut production is more concentrated, the always stable of the peanut production scale of the five provinces of Guangdong, Shandong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hebei, Henan, Hainan producing scale planting expanding, peanut emerging main producing areas. Rapeseed concentrated to the Yangtze River basin, Sichuan, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei Province, the professional level has been higher than the national level, and continue to focus on the trend, the traditional rapeseed main producing areas in Xinjiang production is gradually shrinking, eventually Exit the main producing areas of the ranks. In general, the process of agricultural restructuring, the main producing areas of oil crops in China constantly change, the regional distribution of inter-provincial existence of the shift in the phenomenon. Draw on the results of previous studies, this study uses VAR model to analyze the sensitivity of the reaction of the various regions of the oil crops microscopic planting decisions influencing factors and pricing information. The results show that: the market-oriented reforms, farmers can be more sensitive based on market price information to adjust planting decisions, but also by other factors such as risk, yield. Since farmers production decisions, according to comparative advantage that the comparative advantage of the regional division of a departure from the need to add a new perspective to explain the process of market-oriented reform is deepening, and correct market distortions. 3. Based on the theory of comparative advantage, factor endowments theory, new economic geography and location theory management theory, spatial panel data model empirical analysis of China's oil production area layout and influencing factors of the regional division of labor, the results show that including local market size, transport infrastructure, including the location factors for the regional division of the impact of our oil crops significantly, with Davis and Weinstein (1996) theoretical framework, high transaction costs in the area may be the cause of our country, \a. In addition, representatives of technological progress, efficiency improvements in total factor productivity of the regional division of labor is not significant, indicating regional specialization in China \Using stochastic frontier function to estimate the degree of regional specialization on the technical efficiency of the local oil crops and found that the regional specialization degree of impact on the technical efficiency of different oil crops, soybean, peanut technical efficiency significantly positive impact on the technical efficiency of cotton is not significant, significant negative impact on the technical efficiency of rapeseed. Analysis, we found that the technical efficiency of the high degree of specialization areas may not be higher than areas with low degree of specialization, the main producing areas in the technical efficiency and did not show a list of regional specialization and technical efficiency of cross-simultaneous The main producing areas superiority. Combination of the previous chapter, the total factor productivity of agricultural area specialization significant conclusions, we can see that the technological progress, increased efficiency and regional specialization does not form a cycle between cumulative and self-reinforcing endogenous mechanism.