Analysis on Causes, Features and Trend of Road Traffic Crashes and Traffic Injuries in China
|School||Third Military Medical University|
|Keywords||Road traffic accidents Traffic injuries Database Motor vehicle drivers Accident trends The cause of the incident Accident mortality rate Accident intensity Damage AIS Prevention|
Background and purpose: With the development of China's economy, increased investment in road building, road construction in China continues to accelerate highway mileage in China amounted to 3.15 times in 1996 to 2008, while the income levels of our people in recent years improved increasing private car, a rapid increase in motor vehicle ownership, vehicle fleet in 2008 amounted to 4.71 times in 1996, into the 21st century, China's road accidents and traffic injuries situation may arise some new features. Annual data show that China's road traffic management department of road traffic safety situation has improved posture, accidents and deaths continue to decline, but at the same time a number of research institutions and individual forecasts China road traffic accidents and accident deaths continued to increase, the study reported: China the actual number of deaths each year due to traffic injuries and an average of more than 27.39 million people, this data is much higher than the annual report data. In-depth investigations and analysis of road traffic accidents and casualties, and will help to more accurately reveal the causes of traffic accidents and traffic injuries, characteristics, rules for effective traffic accidents and traffic injury prevention, promote traffic injury treatment and lay foundation. Traffic accidents and traffic injuries: 1, the development of scientific and standardized questionnaire, the preparation of a road traffic accident investigation software, acquisition of road traffic accidents and casualties data, the establishment of a database of road traffic accidents and traffic injuries; 2, from the national Ministry of Public Security Traffic Management Bureau obtain epidemiological characteristics of road traffic accidents and casualties in the overall data, research of the nationwide traffic accidents and traffic injuries, Causes and Prevention key; 3, sampling a representative collection of Chongqing Public Security Traffic Management Detachment nearly seven years of road traffic accidents injury cases and traffic information, of the entry traffic accidents and traffic injury database, depth and detailed analysis of the details of road traffic accidents and traffic injuries in Chongqing, to explore different areas of Chongqing, the causes of road traffic accidents and casualties of personnel, characteristics and differences. Main results: 1. Developed a regional annual road traffic accidents questionnaire and road traffic accidents cases questionnaire, including 384 acquisition project, the survey included: population, road construction, and economic conditions, accidents overall situation, all levels of road accidents and casualties; general of the specific incidents, road environment, the cause of the accident and the responsibility of the vehicle, personnel injury. In the questionnaire based on the preparation of a road traffic accident investigation database software V1.0, and was the National Copyright Administration of copyright protection, copyright registration number: 2008SR05320. Traffic accidents and traffic injury data collected from multiple levels since 1996 after 13 years of national road traffic accidents and traffic injuries year overall data; collected four traffic police detachment area in Chongqing 33,987 from 2000-2006 generally above road accidents and 52,369 cases of traffic casualties. Road traffic accidents and traffic injury database. The national road traffic accidents and traffic injury data in-depth study reveals the regularity and characteristics of the national road traffic accidents and traffic injuries. The main results are: the trend of traffic accidents and traffic injuries: road traffic accidents in China, and the first traffic casualties has increased year by year, and reached a peak in 2002 (773,100, 10.94 million), followed by declining; traffic safety continues to improve, 2008 the annual million vehicles mortality rate dropped to 4.33; the 100,000 population mortality rate reached a peak in 2002 (8.79), followed by gradually improved each year to 2008, dropped to 5.66. The cause of the accident: the motor vehicle drivers reasons due to accidents gradually increased to 83.20% in 1996, 94.90% in 2008, the specific reasons for the accident provisions for motor vehicle drivers, speeding, improper measures negligence did not keep a safe distance from other illegal fault factors based; pedestrians and passengers factors led to the accident ratio declining from 5.00% in 1996, and in 2008 accounted for only 1.37%; lower the proportion of accidents caused by road and environmental factors. Personal injury characteristics: the injured dynamic car driving maximum (38.70%), followed by the passengers (30.56%); persons killed in motor vehicle driving people up (32.05%) (25.76%), pedestrians, followed. The dead pedestrian injuries in the accident rate and the accident intensity was significantly higher than the driver and passengers. Personnel of death in the 26-40 year-old age group up, but the highest in the accident the vilification death rate more than 65 years of age. The geographical distribution of characteristics: our country in the economically developed eastern regions of road traffic accidents and traffic injuries than less developed western regions, but less developed areas of accident severity is stronger than the former, one hundred accident mortality and incident intensity was significantly higher than the developed regions, and The severity of the accident underdeveloped areas was slowly increasing trend. Different characteristics of road accidents: more than 60% of the accidents and casualties occur in the secondary and tertiary roads accounted for about 27% of the country's total highway mileage; one hundred kilometers of a road accident rate and one hundred kilometers of the highest mortality, followed the highest highway 100 accident mortality secondary roads; highway accidents injury death rate highest, strongest intensity. Chongqing sampling traffic accidents and traffic injuries depth comparative study, the main results are: traffic accidents and traffic injuries Overview: sampling million vehicles in mortality and an average of 10 million population mortality rate higher than the national average, the traffic security situation is more serious than the same period the overall level; traffic accidents and traffic injuries did not appear a clear downward trend, on the contrary, the number of accidents and suburban traffic injury deaths fluctuations upward trend. The cause of the accident: accident motor vehicle driver violations of regulations and fault reason, due to accidents accounted for about 84%; pedestrian causes accidents accounted for about 11%, for other reasons accounted for only about 5%; urban pedestrian reasons The accident ratio significantly higher than the peri-urban areas, suburban and national overall level. Regional the accident distribution characteristics: urban and peri-urban areas, the number of accidents was significantly more than the suburban areas, the accident deaths proportion of suburban and peri-urban areas is significantly higher than the city, suburban hundred accident mortality and incident intensity was significantly higher than the other two locations and an upward trend; The city accident occurs mainly in the urban road, suburban accidents and casualties occur in the ordinary road; isolated from the middle of the road with no significant effect on the severity of the accident, but can reduce the occurrence of accidents; caused by mini-van accident the highest proportion, but the highest proportion of small and medium-sized truck accident fatal officer of the urban and peri-urban areas, suburban the motorcycle accident lethal personnel highest proportion; motorcycle accidents and casualties is an upward trend. Casualties characteristics: the injured passengers accounted for 56.28%, pedestrians accounted for 24.74%, accounted for 18.98% of the driver, pedestrian deaths personnel (49.46%), followed by the driver (27.84%), again passengers (22.70%); The urban the pedestrian deaths proportion (67.93%) was significantly higher than the suburbs and suburban counties; the pedestrian accidents intensity stronger than the driver and passengers, suburban the pedestrian accidents intensity significantly stronger than the other two regions. Different age casualties :21-50-year-old age persons injured up to which the highest proportion of 31-35 year-old officer injured; deaths concentrated in the 26-55 years old and 65 years old and above, above the age of 65 the highest proportion (nearly 20%), followed by the 36-40 age group; injury death rate and the highest intensity of staff accidents over the age of 65, 16.12% and 5.74, respectively. Characteristics of traffic injuries injury: pedestrian severe damage accounted for 52.46 percent of the total number of severe injuries, significantly higher than the proportion (38.00%) in mild to moderate injuries; traffic injury site of injury to the head up, especially in the AIS 5, accounted for more than 80% of serious injury in head injury; higher than the proportion of pedestrian head injuries to the driver and passengers, the driver and passengers face mild to moderate damage is higher than pedestrians, passengers with severe chest and spine damage higher than drivers and pedestrians. Conclusion: The security situation of road traffic accidents in China is in the stage II from the improvement of the level of traffic safety, the deterioration in the level of personal safety, improvement to traffic safety and the personal safety of the horizontal sync stage III transition transition. But in rural, remote, and the economy is relatively backward in some areas, the traffic safety situation is still grim, and the number and severity of traffic accidents and traffic injuries are significantly higher than those in developed regions and cities; especially in some rural areas have not yet entered the transition , even the traffic safety situation showing worsening of the situation, should be given adequate attention and concern. Overall, road traffic accidents in China is mainly due to the illegal motor vehicle drivers and mistakes caused followed by pedestrians reasons; in Chongqing, pedestrian reason was significantly higher than the national average, and the city pedestrian reasons traffic was a rising trend. More than 60% of the country's road traffic accidents and accidents caused the death occurred on secondary roads and tertiary roads, the highest of the severity of the highway and a road accident. Nationally, traffic injury deaths driver most pedestrian second. Chongqing data show death pedestrians up; higher proportion of rural areas motorcycle driver to death, and an upward trend; 65 years of age or older in the accident, the most serious injury. The highest proportion of traffic injuries in a traffic accident injured pedestrians severe; highest incidence of traffic injuries of the head, and is the main reason for traffic injury death; pedestrians and occupants injured parts of the obvious differences. The results of this study the characteristics of road traffic accidents and traffic injuries were targeted to strengthen rural and underdeveloped areas, secondary and tertiary roads, highway construction and management, enhance pedestrian and motorcycle drivers management and education, improve traffic injury and medical emergency system, strengthen the elderly and brain injured first aid treatment is effective measures for the prevention of road traffic injuries and their mortality. China should strengthen road traffic accidents and traffic injuries where the recording and preservation of the specification of the relevant information to establish a scientific and complete road traffic accidents and traffic injury database, to deepen the epidemiological studies of the causes of traffic injuries and their prevention and treatment, more effectively contribute to the prevention of traffic injuries and treatment progress and development.