Research on the Relationships Between the Property Right and the Exploitation Externality of the Coal Resource and the Reform of the Property Right
|Keywords||Coal Resource Externality Problem Property Right System Reform|
The externality problems in coal resource exploitation included the coal resource exhaust externality, the environment destruction externality and the security incident externality. The externality problems made the allocation of resource lost the efficiency of the Pareto Optimal Allocation, affected the sustainable utilization of the coal resource, and resulted to the heavy losses in the ecological environment, the lives and the properties. The property right of the coal resource was composed by the ownership and the mining right that included the occupancy right, the usage right, the usufruct right, and so on. The property right affected heavily the externality problems in coal resource exploitation.Firstly, the article analyzed what caused the externality problems in coal resource exploitation, and studied the mechanism that the ownership, the usage right, the usufruct right and the right perspicuity of the coal resource acted on the externality problems. By studying, this article thought, that the coal resource was owned and monopoly exploited by state, that the reasonable relationships of the income distribution were formed according to the Mine Rent Theory of Marxism and that the clear relationships and insititutions of the property right were constructed, were contributive to optimization of the exploitation scale and save of the coal resource, to the sustainable usage of the coal resources; were convenient in adjusting the benefit relationships between the eco-environment and the coal resource exploitation and in interlizing the cost of the eco-environmental treatment because of the consistency with the owner of the eco-environmental property right; could decrease the games in security supervision by eliminating factors of the benefits that induced to overfulfill and make the coal mine increase the safety inputs by promoting the expected return. Secondly, this article constructed the exploitation scale impacted model, and concluded that the more capital and labor inputs, the more profits of the exploitation investment, and the smaller proportion of the state-owned capital, led to the greater exploitation scale. This article also constructed the security impacted model, and concluded that the more capital per unit of coal production, the more profit of the exploitation investment, the greater proportion of the state-owned capital, and the less labors per unit of coal production, led to the higher level of the security in the coal resources exploitation. At the same time, this article validated the theory that the property right of the coal resource affects the externality with the historical data of the coal resource exploitation in our courty. Lastly, this article advanced to solve the externality problems in coal resource exploitation in our country with the way integrated the Pigou’s Way and the Coase’s Way, and suggested for the property right reformation of the coal resource that, the coal resource should be owned by the governments at all levels and be managed by state in unity, state should gradually set up the large-scale coal mines owned by state and reform the property right and the operation mode of the town-owned coal mines, the reasonable relationships of the income distribution should be formed according to the Mine Rent Theory of Marxism, and the clear mining relationship and the property right system should be set up.