Study of Exploring on the Brazilian Road to Socialism by PCdoB
|School||Central China Normal University|
|Keywords||Partido Comunista do Brasil(PCdoB) Socialism the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries Politics of Brazil|
The Communist Party of Brazil(PCdoB) was founded on March 25,1922. It is a Marxism-Leninism party with glorious revolutionary struggle traditions, to this day, it has gone through arduous and tortuous developmental course of 90 years. In the long-term revolutionary struggle full of complexity and volatility, PCdoB has defended firmly the fundamental perspectives of Marxism-Leninism and scientific socialism all the time, and persisted in the basic principles of proletarian party, and strived steadily and indefatigably for exploring on caminho brasileiro para o socialismo. After the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries, the world socialist movemet suffered historically grievous setbacks. Facing up to the cruel reality, PCdoB had a fundamental rethink and summarize the experiences and lessons of the world socialist revolutionary and construction of the 20th century, and reloaded socialism. PCdoB reajusted its essential strategies and tactics at the present stage, and probed creatively into a series of fundamental issues of the developmental path towards socialism in Brazil on the above mentioned theoretical bases. Thus PCdoB appears the newly developmental momentum and trend.Nowadays, PCdoB has become not only the largest communist party in Brazil, but also the communist party with the largest scale and the greatest strength except for the communist party of Cuba in Latin America. As a left-wing ruling coalition partner which is led by Partido dos Trabalhadores(PT), PCdoB plays a constructive role in political, economic and social life in Brazil. PCdoB didn’t have development checked due to the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries, conversely, it grows continuously on the bases of adhering to the ideal and faith of Marxism-Leninism. In the currently historical period of the general low-tide of the world socialist movement, the development of PCdoB provokes our common concern and thought.Guided by Marxist world outlook and methodology of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, the dissertation hackles and analyses the theoretical development and practical exploration comprehensively and systematically. The dissertation comprises six parts:the introduction; the arduous and tortuous development of the PCdoB and its painstaking exploration on the Brazilian socialist road; the theoretical reflections on socialism by PCdoB after the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries; The exploration on caminho brasileiro para o socialismo by PCdoB; the struggle practice of striving for democracy and socialism by PCdoB; The main experiences and lessons of continuous growth of PCdoB and the challenges it will be confronted with in the future developmental course. The major contents are as the follows: The introduction illustrates the reason and significance for selecting such a research subject, the current research state of this subject, the way of thinking and methods used in the study, the innovation and defects of the dissertation.The first part mainly examines and analyzes the arduous and tortuous development of the PCdoB and its painstaking exploration on the Brazilian socialist development road. According to the political and economic development situation from home to abroad in Brazil, and the development state of PCdoB at different stages in history, we can divide the developmental course of PCdoB into three stages:the struggle and exploration of 40 years(1922-1961); the organizational split and reestablishment of PCdoB(1962-1990); and the new development and exploration of PCdoB since the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries(1991-). At different stages in history, PCdoB was faced with different political and economic development situation from home to abroad in Brazil, accordingly it was in different circumstances. On the whole, the developmental course of PCdoB was full of tortuosity, crisis and setback. PCdoB has grown continuously with the fiercely and ruthlessly political struggle with the reactionary forces at home and abroad, and with conquering the different wrong ideological tendencies within the party. At the same time, it was a burdensome process of exploring on the Brazilian socialist development road by PCdoB. Just in this process, PCdoB has established gradually the theory of exploring on caminho brasileiro para o socialismo com feicao brasileira, which will be constantly enriched and developed in practice.The second part mainly expounds the theoretical reflections on world socialist movement of the twentieth century by PCdoB. This includes:An analysis of the causes of the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries by PCdoB; An analysis of the experiences and lessons of socialist revolutionary and construction by PCdoB, that is, there isn’t a unique model of socialist revolutionary and construction, there isn’t a direct passage of transition from capitalism to socialism, socialist revolutionary and construction should be combined with the Development of the Era and the concrete conditions of various nations. The crisis of the development of Marxism-Leninism which caused by the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries shocked and impacted the Communist and Worker Parties including PCdoB strongly. It impelled them to reconsider and analyze concretely the crisis of the development of Marxism-Leninism in 20th century comprehensively and profoundly. In PCdoB’s opinion, the crisis of the development of Marxism-Leninism was the one which originated from the inner-Marxism-Leninism movement. It was chiefly manifested in the theories of class struggle and dictatorship of proletariat of Marxism-Leninism, the principles of democratic centralism of Marxism-Leninism, and the road, ways and means with regard to the socialist revolutionary and construction. Thus, PCdoB put forward to adhering to and defending principios, and analyzed the crisis of the development of Marxism-Leninism concretely and profoundly guided by Marxist world outlook and methodology of historical materialism and dialectical materialism which is the scientific guide to theoretical innovation and practical exploration of Marxist party. PCdoB pointed out emphatically that it was the great historical task for Communists of the present era to overcome the crisis of the development of Marxism-Leninism.The third part mainly expounds the exploration on caminho brasileiro para o socialismo by PCdoB. This includes:The subjective and objective conditions for the formulation of the theory of caminho brasileiro para o socialismo of PCdoB; The main contents of the theory of caminho brasileiro para o socialismo of PCdoB; The basic Program and its plans of transformation of PCdoB in a da transicao preliminar do capitalismo ao socialismo; The characteristics of Program and Theory of caminho brasileiro para o socialismo of PCdoB. The theory of caminho brasileiro para o socialismo introduced by PCdoB is premised with rethinking and summarizing the experiences and lessons of the world socialist revolution and construction of the 20th century, and under the newly historical background that contemporary world socialist movement has taken on the diversified tendency, and in light of Brazil’s basic conditions. In the democratization process of Brazil in 1980s, PCdoB’s political status and social position had greatly historical changes. From the starting point of resisting and struggling against the economic and social policies of neoliberalism, PCdoB has explored briefly on the series of basic questions in terms of the Brazilian socialist development road. These include:the social character and its principal contradiction of Brazil; the stage of socialist revolutionary movement in Brazil at the present; the relied forces and its ways and means towards socialism; the concrete path to caminho brasileiro para o socialismo; the Programs of politics, ecomomy and culture about constructing socialism with Brazilian characteristics and its transforming plans.The fourth part mainly expounds the struggle practice of striving for democracy and socialism by PCdoB. This part summarizes and analyzes the PCdoB’s struggle practice in the following four respects. First and foremost, PCdoB actively engages in and organize and lead the mass social movements. This includes:PCdoB’s leadship in Trade Unions, Youth and Organization for Women, PCdoB attaches importance to reinforcing the contact with new social stratum, especially progressive intelligentsia. Secondly, PCdoB’s activities in political life as a participatory party of coalition government. This includes:PCdoB’s tactics and struggles in General Elections of 2002,2006, and 2010; PCdoB’s standpoint and opinions on the left-wing coalition government led by PT. Thirdly, the striving for democracy and socialism by PCdoB and the integration of Latin America. This includes: The course and its expression of the integration of Latin America; The relationship between the integration of Latin America and the striving for democracy and socialism by PCdoB. Fourthly, Party building and interparty exchange and international activities of PCdoB. This includes:The concrete measures of strengthening Party-building by PCdoB; The interparty exchange and international activities of PCdoB.The fifth part briefly expounds the main experiences and lessons of continuous growth of PCdoB and the challenges it will be confronted with in the future developmental course. This part summarizes and analyses the main experiences and lessons of continuous growth of PCdoB and the challenges it will be confronted with in the future developmental course in the following three respects. First and foremost, the tremendous achievements of development made by PCdoB after the Collapse of Soviet Union and Eastern Socialist Countries. This includes:The performances of development of PCdoB and its constantly increasing influence at home and abroad; The fundamental change of political status of PCdoB. Secondly, the main experiences and lessons of continuous growth of PCdoB. This includes: PCdoB approaches Marxism scientifically and combines adhering to the general tenets of Marxism with the features of the times and the concrete Brazil’s conditions; PCdoB strengthens the institutional construction of the leadership system of Party in order to heighten Party’s vitality, energy and creativity; PCdoB upholds and develops Marxist democratic centralism so as to defend Party’s unity and solidarity. Thirdly, the challenges PCdoB will be confronted with in the future developmental course. This includes:The external interference in Latin America from the US-led international monopoly capital; To struggle against the social forces of new liberalism and to safeguard the internal unity of the coalition of left-wing parties; The influences on political development of PCdoB from Brazilian Party System and Electoral System; The difficulties and challenges PCdoB will be confronted with in putting Novo Projeto Nacional de Desenvolvimento into effect.