A Study on the Subordinators in Middle Ancient Chinese
|Fujian Normal University
|Middle Ancient Chinese subordinator grammaticalization syntactic position
This paper selects the subordinators in the Middle Ancient as study objects, and tries to study it comprehensively and systematically from synchronic and diachronic perspectives. It unfolds the aspect of the subordinators in the Middle Ancient through particularity description, summarizes the characters, expresses evolution track, and induction the trend of development. We also explain some syntax and phenomenon of semantic.Firstly, this paper First, this paper describes and classifies six kinds conjunctions, they are assumptive conjunctions, conditional conjunctions, causal conjunctions, objective conjunctions, concessive conjunctions, transitional conjunctions. And we review the times of every conjunction emerging, the character of syntax and semantic and using condition in different stages, and try to draw the outline of the subordinators in the Middle Ancient. We discuss the word-formation and word-building of the subordinators in the Middle Ancient, and review the subordinators from their stability and expansibility in diachronic perspectives. Secondly, the paper discusses the source of subordinators and the process of grammaticalization, and describes the track of grammaticalization, and finds the motivation and mechanism from grammaticalization. The type of grammaticalization of subordinators are very abundant, there are transformation of notional word to conjunction and evolution of function word to conjunction, and there are evolution of conjunction from low degree to high in grammaticalization and lexicalization of cross-layer non-phrase structure. The process of subordinators’ grammaticalization also presents significant character of paralleled grammar evolution. For example, a mass of possibility cognition modality markers grammaticalized to assumptive conjunctions, many assumptive conjunctions grammaticalized to concessive conjunctions, and some modal adverbs which express positive mood grammaticalizes to concessive conjunctions and so on. Paralleled grammar evolution results in that every type of conjunctions have synonymous member. The grammaticalization process of some subordinators also reflects the character of multi-path, that is, from different items grammaticalizes individually then generating the same conjunction, such as concessive conjunctions-"ji(即)" and causal conjunctions-"you(由)". Finally, the paper described the syntactic position of the subordinators in that time in detail, and classified them, and tries to explain the syntactic position of the subordinators especially procession subordinators, and hold that the syntactic position of monosyllabic procession conjunctions effect by principle of maintenance and fronting, and Disyllable conjunctions’ syntactic position are free and relate to the identity of conjunction further confirmation.In study methods, we try to combines description with interpretation, synchronicalty with diachrony, form with comparison and induction. And meanwhile we also reference the analyses methods of traditional exegetics and traditional grammar. Through analysis and arrangement, on the basis of reference and utilization of predecessors and Virtuous’s study results we study the whole appearance of the subordinators in Middle Ancient from point to surface and from outside to inside.