Human nature and politics
|School||The Central Party School|
|Course||The philosophy of Marxism|
|Keywords||Humanity Political The relationship between humanity and political Rationality Self-interest Humanism Reality Marxism Chinese Context Political reform|
Politics is actually a special means for people to seek benefits, but also the use of political power to promote and maintain the way of life of a human, this implicit premise that the life of a certain class of people is the most cost people's lives, or that a certain class people, which will inevitably lead to the questioning of human nature. Human nature and political relations thus become a fundamental problem of political philosophy, but this problem has long been ignored. Since political philosophy, political thinkers of different periods are starting from the human to explore the laws of political themes and purposes, but are not clearly the basis of the status of human nature in politics, not to consciously or consciously from the human starting to elaborate politics, political ideology and political system. In the socialist countries, humanity and humanitarian earliest explicitly put forward by bourgeois thinkers always thought that humanity or humanitarian belongs to the ideology of the bourgeoisie in the study and practice of political rejection. Which led to the loss of the socialist countries and their political parties the right to speak in human nature, human rights and humanitarian fields. However, since the political life is an important part of people's lives, politics is an important dimension to affect the lives of the people, then, only political and human relations is enough to make people can not be ignored human nature. Political concerns the fundamental problem is nothing more than get the problem of the people's interests, which asked what people should get what interests or which person is more human nature, and thus have priority access to resources . Political legitimacy is thus derived, humanity decided to politics, a different view of human nature lead to a different political view. So, their essence, the political actual confirmation and protection of a particular class lifestyle. This must involve whose way of life is a legitimate, appropriate, or who's the real life human life. Therefore, the nature of man as man will become the fundamental starting point for politics. There are two aspects of the relationship between humanity and politics, human nature and political relations, which is to investigate the relationship of people with political issues from human. It the focus of all human activities are commenced in the realization of human nature; human development but also the development of the productive forces, human development but also the development of society. The second is the economic and political relations. Both from reality or theoretically, one aspect of this is the object of interpersonal relationship, but not all. Because the object he includes not only human life, including the natural world, the economy is only one. However, because the economy is the basis of human survival and development, that is, there is no material basis, people can not be realistic. Marxism, the relationship between man and object mainly refers to the relationship of the human and material. In this dimension, the economic and political relationship that is, how to get life objects naturally became the main problem of the political life. Marx's political philosophy is to expand political argument from dimensions, but in the unity of people and objects. Materialism of Marx as a real human liberation and development of the doctrine is the humanitarian a complete morphology. Marx's successor is ignored it. In other words, from the man himself to explain the relationship between the people and the political, has been a neglected area of ??political philosophy of Marxism after Marx. Which led to the separation of the person-to-person object ignore the people's own development and the presence, the same result in a capitalist society, \materialism. Due to the special and realistic national conditions and the impact of the Soviet ideology. China's political academic basic research on the political issues of the expanded also from the point of view of the object, to humanity was excluded from the field of view of Chinese scholars and politicians, human nature, human rights, humanitarian and has been restricted area of ??the Marxist researchers. Reform and opening-up, on the one hand, due to the development of the practice, the issues of human development has increasingly become a major and pressing issues that must be resolved by the Chinese community, the other hand, thinkers and politicians of dogmatism gradually overcome Marx understanding of the political philosophy of a comprehensive and in-depth, the status of the problem in China's political life has become increasingly prominent, people-oriented basic theory then become China's political life, which will inevitably lead to re-examine the traditional political ideology and political system and reform . Therefore, political thinkers from the history of the relationship between humanity and political explore in looking for understanding of the law, to provide theoretical support political reform in China, the theoretical argument for the construction of political civilization in China, became a political philosophy today the basic task of the researchers. Of course, this theory of planning and inevitable does not involve specific construction of political ideas and institutions, just asked the theoretical analysis of the existing problems in the people the reality of political life and political life of the construction of a theoretical or direction on the demonstration, to reshape the dominant position of the political. Specifically, this paper commenced from the following aspects: the traditional Chinese political philosophy from the overall personnel are talking about how the adult has been the main issues discussed by the ancient Chinese thinker. Confucianism, Taoism, Act three views are different, but they are starting to recognize people from human avian Distinction. On the issue of the relationship between humanity and political logic path consistent: all be derived from human nature the principle of the political system, the theme. And political philosophy in ancient China, human nature is not only the starting point of politics, principles and objectives, but also the political pros and cons of the fundamental standards. Only adults can become owners of the political rights and political power. Western classical political philosophy of human nature and political relations. During this period, most of the Western thinkers humanity provisions for rational rational as standard and the basis of political rights; Sense and often comes down to knowledge. Therefore, during this period of political and ideological mainly from how much have the knowledge to judge a person's degree of perfection, and as the basis of its own political power and political rights. The social hierarchy is to define the degree of reason or knowledge owned by people. The best rulers is derived from. Dissemination and popularization of the concept of equality in modern Western philosophy, people in human equality, at least in theory, everyone can be a ruler. Thus classical political philosophy, said poor human nature can not be established, the resulting political hierarchy are bound to end. Development and political issues mainly composed of the best rulers into how to choose the rulers, that becomes a purely procedural issues. Which is the political and scientific originator. The development of this theory, will inevitably lead to political authority Disenchantment and people's political life of the plane. In other words, the Western, modern political equality is human nature notion as an opportunity. As for how to provide humanity thinkers, that is quite a minor problem. Marxist political philosophy as the premise and basis of the same human nature changes. In Marx's view, the reality is the unity of the people and their objects. Once the object separation, then the person is no longer a reality, the object is no longer the object. Thus, how to achieve the unity of the people and objects, and people who become a reality, have become the fundamental problem of the political ideology of Marxism. Marx and his successor is to explore human nature and politics commenced. In this discussion of Marx from the object level to explore the human reality. Marxist after Marx mainly from the object from the object rather than to explore, to deviate from the track of political philosophy pioneered by Marx. This is Marxism internal humanitarian and materialism of controversy basic reasons. The Chinese Marxist also be the impact of this bias. The relationship between humanity and political dialectic. From a historical point of view, all political thinkers from humanity starting to build and demonstrate their own political theory building and construct a political system, the only difference lies in the understanding of human nature. Such a different understanding of human nature and their living conditions based In other words, the so-called humanity is different thinkers affirmation of their own living conditions and the way the political is only the ideology of this lifestyle and institutionalized. In this regard, humanity decided to politics, political legitimacy in its maintenance of the status of human nature and the human body. On the other hand, due to person-to-person object is unified, politics is the most powerful tools of control person object of political power by controlling the survival and life objects even decisive impact on the survival and life of the people , the role that political development of human nature sometimes decisive role. Therefore, the relationship between humanity and political dialectic. Human nature for political legislation, to achieve positive interaction of humanity and political development and political development of the people to establish the fundamental requirement of compliance with the human development requires political. Contemporary Chinese Context human nature and politics. Marxism is the fundamental guiding ideology of the Chinese society, Marx's theory about reality Construction of Philosophy and political reform in China's political theory guide and basis in reality. China's political requirements in line with the reality of people's development depends on the quality of the Chinese people and China's political system to improve and enhance the perfection of human nature and the perfection of the political system is accompanied by the line. Improve the quality of the people through the political system, high-quality people to build high-quality political life, the positive interaction of human nature and politics, to achieve common development and enhance, the fundamental task of China's political reform.