The Strategic Ecological Impact Assessment of Urban Development of Shandong Province
|Keywords||Shandong Province Jinan City Rizhao City Ecological Impact Assessment Sustainable development Ecosystem services Urbanization Ecological compensation|
With the global socio-economic development, urbanization has become an irreversible trend in today's society. The degree of urbanization is a measure of a national and regional economic, social, cultural, scientific and technological level of an important symbol, also a measure of the degree of social organization and management of national and regional level of an important symbol. However, the rapid expansion of urbanization process caused the urban rapid population growth and urban area is one of the main drivers of the decrease in other types of land area and land use pattern change. This led to many social, economic, and ecological and environmental problems, and may cause local or global biological habitat loss or fragmentation, reduction in biodiversity and ecosystem services weakened. Therefore, how to deal with these ecological and environmental problems, and their incorporation into policy, planning and project decision-making process (Plan, Program and Projects, PPPs), become important issues facing policy makers and ecologists. In a GIS (Geographic Information System, GIS), remote sensing (Remote Sensing, RS) and GPS (Global Positioning System, GPS) under the aid of 3S technology, strategic environmental assessment (Strategic Environmental Assessment, SEA), Environmental Impact evaluation (EnvironmentalImpact Assessment, EIA) and ecological impact assessment (Ecological Impact Assessment, EcIA) as an aid to decision-making process, has developed rapidly in the world. SEA can help decision-makers in the process of the development of PPPs, the environmental impact of these PPPs can be fully taken into account, and to develop alternatives to avoid, mitigate or compensate for these environmental losses from the strategic level, such as law, policy or planning level to achieve no net loss (Non-Net-Loss) purposes. EIA through the potential environmental impacts that may be caused by the specific project evaluation and to provide an alternative to achieve no net loss of purpose. EcIA by identifying, quantifying and evaluating the potential impact of an activity on the ecosystem or its components, to develop mitigation measures. It can be integrated into the ecological protection project development and implementation process, to achieve the purpose of protecting the environment. However, the current EcIA main application at the project level, there is little will EcIA be applied to the strategic level. Application of EcIA at the strategic level is expected to be used as the SEA a powerful auxiliary, ecological protection into the temporal and spatial scales from the macro to the development and implementation of PPPs, and play the role of the monitoring the ecological impact of PPPs in the implementation process. The impact of economic growth and rapid population increase, the pace of urbanization in China is also growing fast. As an economic and populous province in China, Shandong Province since the reform and opening up, also experienced a rapid development of the city, city of Shandong Province four different periods of satellite image analysis (1980,1995,2000 and 2006), it was found the rapid development of the technology lead to a rapid expansion of the sharp growth in the urban population and the urban area, and also to promote living and industrial land area of ??rapid expansion caused by urban and rural ask a corresponding reduction in the cultivated area, and thus lead to a lot of woodland, wetland and grassland was reclaimed for arable land, of forests, wetlands and grassland eco-system caused the damage, sparking a series of ecological problems, such as biological habitat loss due to land use changes, isolation or fragmentation of the weakened ecosystem services function. By analyzing all cities and counties in Shandong Province, the main land use types and their changes at different times, and found that in the 20 years between 1980-2000, because in the beginning of reform and opening up, the socio-economic development of Shandong Province, has just started, the city's slower rate of expansion, Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, with the deepening of reform and opening up, Shandong Province, the socio-economic stage of rapid development, the rapid spread of the city occupied a large area of ??arable land, woodland, grassland and wetland, one of the most affected in the urban fringe with arable land. Land use changes more obvious and complex cities and counties are generally located in the Jiaodong Peninsula coastal areas and Lu in the hilly areas, including Jinan, Qingdao, Zibo, Linyi, Weifang, Rizhao, Yantai municipal districts of the prefecture-level cities, these areas due to early agriculture developed, the reform and opening up special emphasis on industrial development, which led to these areas faster urbanization. And changes in land use types relative ease areas are generally located in northern Shandong plain, the the Southwest Plains region, northwest plains and Southeastern Shandong plain areas, these areas are often in the plains, dominated by agriculture, the industry is relatively underdeveloped, socio-economic slow the development of land use changes relative ease, the urbanization of this area is slow. By studying the various cities and counties in Shandong Province in different periods of change of the value of ecosystem services, can be found in hilly areas of South-Shandong Jiaodong Peninsula hilly areas and hilly area of ??southeastern Shandong and Nansi Lake wetlands and the Yellow River Delta wetland ecosystem service value , mainly due to these areas contain large areas of forest and shrub and grass or wetlands, the more non-market value of ecosystem services. However, rapid urbanization development in these areas to the ecological system varying degrees of impact, is threatening to undermine its ecosystem services. In northern Shandong plain, plain areas of the Southwest, the northwest plains region and Southeastern Shandong plain areas of the market value of ecosystem services is relatively large proportion, mainly because these areas to arable land-based, is the major grain producing areas in Shandong Province due to social and economic development of these areas is slow, so the impact on its ecosystem services is relatively light. Can be seen through the analysis of two typical cities of Jinan and Rizhao City, in the initial stage of the urban social and economic development, urbanization development strategy tend to focus on the rapid development of socio-economic and ignore the maintenance of the ecological environment, consumption is limited to the low efficiency natural resources as a driving force in order to achieve the extensive growth of the economy. Taking economic construction as the center development mechanism under the urbanization development strategy resulting in the destruction of vital ecosystems such as forests and wetlands, as well as substantial loss of natural resources. However, the development and implementation of the process of urbanization development strategy should be fully ecological and environmental protection into account, to strengthen the protection and management of forests, wetlands and other important ecosystems, and accelerate the development of tertiary industry, limit the secondary industry, especially high pollution emissions and resource consumption characteristics of the development of the industry. Urban development around the ecological environment and natural condition is characterized by the development of characteristic economy, circular economy can be effective to maintain and protect the ecological environment in the realization of socio-economic development at the same time. By Jinan and Rizhao City as a case study, four satellite images of the two cities, respectively, analyze the different periods of the implementation of the different urbanization development strategy ecosystems provide a theoretical reference for environment-friendly policy-making . The results show that the full ecological and environmental protection into account the implementation of environmentally friendly policies will help to maintain ecosystem services, and promote coordinated and sustainable development of the regional socio-economic and ecological environment protection.