The Differences between the Vijn～apti-ma＾trata Ideas of Yuan Ce and Kui Ji
|Keywords||a^bhidha^rmika Classification of sutra sa^ka^raofvijn~apti-ma^trata^ animitta of vijn~apti-ma^trata^ all flesh have Buddha-nature difference among gotra|
Most scholars believe that there are differences between the vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas of Yuan Ce and Ci En;however,few of them have tried to explain in detail what are the differences,and further explore what brings about such differences.This treatise focuses on the comparative study between the vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas of Yuan Ce and Kui Ji,analyses in detail their differences and similarities,and then further probes the reasons causing such differences.This treatise is divided into six chapters.The first chapter makes a general introduction to the present research in the field of contemporary vijn～apti-ma^trata,explaining the contributions made by such a^bhidha^rmikas as Asanga,Vasubandhu and Xuan Zang to the development of Chinese vijn～apti-ma^trata and vijn～apti-ma^trata zong.At the same time,this chapter also analyses the significance of making such a comparative study between the vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas of Yuan Ce and Kui Ji as follows.Firstly,making clear the differences between the two parties of vijn～apti-ma^trata zong is beneficial to judge whether Yuan Ce’s vijn～apti-ma^trata idea is true miscreant.Secondly,Yuan Ce didn’t totally take Dharmapāla’s vijn～apti-ma^trata idea as orthodox Kui Ji doctrine, nevertheless,he absorbed all the vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas of the ten a^bhidha^rmikas, which led to the formation of a more reasonable and integrative vijn～apti-ma^trata doctrine.Thirdly,Kuiji faithfully inherited Xuan Zang’s vijn～apti-ma^trata idea,and therefore continued the Dharmapāla tradition,which contributed to the foundation of Faxiang zong based on his doctrines in Vijn～aptima^trata^siddhi-s/a^stra.In the second chapter,the author introduces the life story of Yuan Ce and his thought origins.Yuan Ce and Xuan Zang inherited from the same master.Kui Ji was Xuan zang’s student.Yuan Ce had many original ideas,which were different from those of Kui Ji,and thus initiated Korean vijn～apti-ma^trata zong.Although he was envied and prejudiced as a miscreant by Kui Ji’s students,later his reputation has been restored with the discovery of his doctrine which spread as far as Tibet and Dunhuang.In spite of this fact,very little research has been made on Yuan Ce in the religious circle during the following 1000 years,and thus it seems that people will gradually forget him.In this chapter,the author firstly introduces Yuan Ce’s school experiences,works and how he founded Xi Ming Study Case.Then the author focuses on the influence of Bodhiruci and Parama^rtha’s vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas on Yuan Ce,as well as his study on both the new and the old vijn～apti-ma^trata ideas.Relevant ideas to Yuan Ce’s vijn～apti-ma^trata doctrine in Maitr=eya,Asanga and Vasubandhu’s works have also been mentioned.Yuan Ce has tried to use the concept of "sequence of artha-gati" to solve the difficulty of "sequence according to period" among "classification of sutra of three periods" in vijn～apti-ma^trata zong.He has set up his own point of view with a critical heritage from vijn～apti-ma^trata of bhava-abhava.As his doctrine usually holds a middle ground,without any prejudice against either party of vijn～apti-ma^trata zong, he can effectively combine the ideas of Madhyamika and vijn～apti-ma^trata.He believes "all flesh have Buddha-nature",which can be a proof.This is also the characteristic of his vijn～apti-ma^trata doctrine.In the third chapter,the author introduces the life story of Kui Ji and his relation with Faxing zong.At 17,he ran into religion,became a disciple of Xuan Zang,and began to participate in Xuan Zang’s project of translating sutra at 25.His main contribution not only lies in the assistant work of translating sutra,but also includes detailed annotated work for newly translated sutra.During the period of translating sutra, Xuang Zang often instructed Buddhist disciples his own insights on sutra.Kui Ji was often in company when Xuang Zang gave instructions,so he remembered a lot and made most of his annotations under instruction of Xuang Zang himself.Thereby Kui Ji was also called "master of one hundred annotations" for he made far more annotated work than others.His annotated works are of great significance to the study of vijn～apti-ma^trata,as they are abundant in number,subtle in explanation,as well as good at concentrating and constructing theoretical system.Huizhao,one of his disciples, was the founder of Faxiang zong.Huizhao was also called the great master of Cien,as he often lived in the big temple of Cien.Huizhao associated frequently with the dignities in Wutai Mountain,therefore he had close relation with Cien zong in Wutai Mountain.Later his works were introduced to Japan,and became classics of Japanese Faxiang zong.This treatise concentrates on the origins of Kui Ji’s vijn～apti-ma^trata idea,pointing out the influence of Xuan Zang’s vijn～apti-ma^trata idea is the key.The fourth chapter mainly deals with Body of sutra and Classification of sutra. Body of sutra is the noumenon of Buddha’s Dharma,which studies the nature of Buddhism.The author explains Yuan Ce’s view on Body of sutra,his way of thinking on Body of sutra and the contents of his thoughts.In addition,the Classification of sutra in Tiantai zong is also mentioned,which has divided Buddhism into "five periods" and "eight kind methods of cultivation".Kui Ji accepted the idea of"Classification of sutra of three periods" in Sam!dhi-nirmocana-su^tra,and established the Classification of sutra based on the classification of Buddha’s Dharma.Kui Ji classified Buddha’s Dharma as "bhava","s/u^nya","madhyama^-pratipad","three periods" according to Sam!dhi-nirmocana-su^tra and Yogaca^rabhu^mi.Bhava is the first period.In order to break a^tma-gra^ha of pr!thag-jana,Buddha instructes a^gama in Mr!gada^va to declare catvary a^rya-satya^ni,dva^das/a^n%gaprati^tya-samutpa^da,pan～ca skandha^h!.This is the doctrine of a^tma-s/u^nyata.S/u^nya is the second period.In order to break abhinives/a of dharma,Buddha instructs prajn～a in Gr!dhraku^t!a, explains the troth of s/u^nya of dharma and makes it understood by common flesh,who will therefore give up hi^na-ya^na to accept maha^-ya^na.This is the doctrine of s/u^nya of dharma,madhyama^-pratipad is the third period.In order to break abhinives/a of s/u^nya,Buddha instructs sarva-dharma,vijn～a^na and so on.This is called the doctrine of s/u^nya of dharma of vijn～a^na.Three periods can be distinguished according to the sequence of Buddha’s giving instructions,which is called "sequence according to period";it can also be distinguished according to ni^ta^rtha and neya^rtha,which is called sequence of artha-gati;Some distinguish it by both. Zhang zhong shu yao of Vijn～aptima^trata^siddhi-s/a^stra views vijn～apti-ma^trata dogma as the first;Fa yuan yi lin zhang of maha^-ya^na systematizes the truth of vijn～apti-ma^trata of five levels;Faxiang zong is based on six su^tra and eleven s/a^stra, and makes Classification of sutra of three periods more clear and intelligible.Yuan Ce’s Classification of sutra basically adopts the mode of Classification of sutra of three periods,while he makes his own explanations to it.He believes Classification of sutra of three periods is relative,so he focuses on the relation among the three dogmas rather than their differences and insists that Classification of sutra of three periods have nothing to do with the sequence of time.In the fifth chapter,the author introduced the essecential difference between Kuiji’s and Yuance’s thought.On the aspect of object of knowledge,Kuiji advocated the theory of sa^ka^ra,and approved "truthfulness of existence";while Yuance advocated the theory of ainmitta,and approved "nihility of existence".On the aspect of object of thought,basing his thought on maha^-ya^na s/u^nya zong of Na^ga^rjuna and Bhavya, and taking the position of Parama^rtha,Yuance regarded meaing as the object.However, Kuiji based his thought on Dharmapa^la’s theory,took the position of sam!vr!tti-satyatva,and regarded "language" as object of thought.Furthermore,on the position of holding the object being "truthfulness of existence",he advocated reality of existence.When anlylizing Vijnaptimatratasiddhi-trimsai-kakarika-sastra,Kuiji categorized the phenomenon and existence into laks!an!a prakr!ti and svabha^va and explained them according to three kinds of methods of a^bhidha^rmika of ancient India. In his explanation,he showed his doubt in perspectives of tri-svabhava and trividha^ nih!svabha^vata^,and explained the anukrama of study on the angle of Vipacyana in Consciousness.He inherited theory of tri-svabhava and Vipacyana in Consciousness, and holded that tri-svabhava cannot exist without vijn～a^na,which means as consciousness appears,it forms para-tantra-svabha^v,then mano-vijn～a^na abhiniru^pan!a^-vikalpa,and takes the seperation of "subject" and "object",which is parikalpita-svabha^va.For the sake all flesh becoming Buddha,Yuance holded subjects have no differeen in svabha^va.Nevertheless,laks!an!a and prakr!ti are different in Buddhism.What Bobhisattva has said is only language,and the content must be acknowledged from the perspective of meaning.On dharma and body,Kuiji seperated them into four aspects to analysize the theory of exitence;while Yuance took She wang gui zhen men and She wang cha bie men as two basic categories,and make further explanation.At the same time,the author introduced the relation of Si fen cheng li shuo and Si fen xiang,and states the different ideas of Kuiji and Yuance on this aspect.The 6th chapter mainly introduces the difference between "difference among gotra" and "all flesh have Buddha-nature".To be Buddha is the ultimate goal of Buddhism.Nevertheless,Faxiang zong,which didn’t deem that all flesh can be Buddha, avered "difference among gotra".Yuance held the opinion that all flesh can be Buddha from the standpoint of all flesh have Buddha-nature.Yuxiliaodi considered Yuance inherited Parama^rtha’s notion of "all flesh have Buddha-nature",and disagreed "difference among gotra",though he belonged to Faxiang zong.But Juchuanzhizhao thought that Yuance avered "difference among gotra".Yuance’s ekaya^na- idea evolved through digesting "discussing ekaya^na really while tri^n!i ya^na^ni feignedly" and "discussing tri^n!i ya^na^ni really while ekaya^na feignedly".Gotra belongs to the philosophy system of India’s late- Buddhism,including maha^-ya^na bhava,Asan%ga and Vasubandhu.Xuanzang imparted gotra to Kuiji,who used vijn～apti-ma^trata^ to explain the world.He thought phenomena were all visualized from a^laya,while vijn～a^na considered phenomena as hypostatic.Besides,in his view,a^laya contains a potential that can change the world,which is called Bi^ja.Bi^ja consists of two parts, sa^srava and srava.The former is the cause of loka-dharma coming into being,and the latter asam!skr!ta-dharma.Thereby all flesh contains three types,s/ra^vaka, pratyeka-buddha and bodhi-sattva;it can also be divided by aniyataikatara-gotra and non-gotra.Consequently,gotra was established.It differs from the theory of all fresh have buddha-dha^tu.The general characteristic of the "difference among gotra" in Kuiji’s Shuyao is that not only to consider it as a kind of proof of itself,but also to analyze the literature quoted by those who avers "all flesh have Buddha-nature".Kuiji used "Shao fen yi qie"to understand"all fresh have buddha-dha^tu",which is said in Maha^-parinirva^n!a-su^tra.He interpreted"Shao fen yi qie" as icchantika;what’s more,he demonstrated the differences among gotra by this way.In the Maha^ -parinirva^n!a-su^tra,Faxiang zong thinks icchantika cannot be Buddha,but it can in Yuance’s view.Therefore,the two sides debated in their own way.