Health-related high-tech enterprise knowledge workers inefficient measurement study
|School||Peking Union Medical College , China|
|Course||Epidemiology and Health Statistics|
|Keywords||High-technology enterprise Knowledge worker Presenteeism Absenteeism Employee general health status Scale Employee interview Experts consultation Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA) Enterprise health and productivity Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)|
BackgroundHigh-technology enterprises are the ones that manufacture high-technology products by high-technology or provide high-technology services.Developing high-technology enterprises is an important strategy to develop the capital economy of our country in 21st century.The knowledge workers who engage in high-level management,research,technology service,training,account/audit/statistics,are crucial human capital and soul of the high-technology enterprises.The human capital is composed by two parts,the one is health element which includes physical force, good physical status,etc.The other is education element which includes experiences, knowledges and technologies.Health is the carrier of knowledge and intelligence. Good health status is the precondition for workers to do their intellectual work adequately.Health problems that the enterprises encounted is not only with high medical cost,but also with the potential cost which the presenteesim resulted in.The later is several times higher than direct medical cost.Therefore,it is necessary to measure the presenteeism and identify the potential cost of it to help employers to understand the severity of the problems.Scientific measurement will provide evidence to support employee health management is not only a company’s welfare benefits,but also a high-return investment.However,we have not found domestic reports of the research on presenteeism measurement up to the present.The non-Chinese measurement instruments are not fit to measure Chinese people,so it is essential to develop a new measurement instrument to measure Chinese people’presenteeism based on the basic princips and method of non-Chinese measurement instruments.Objectives 1.To design the framework of measurement instrument ofpresenteeism for Chinese high-technology knowledge worker.2.To construct the measurement instrument ofpresenteeism for Chinese high-technology knowledge worker.3.To carry out the investigation of presenteeism in a high-technology enterprise using the instruct to test its practicability and feasibility.4.To provide recommendations on how to carry out the programme of heath and productivity management.MethodsThe methods of literature review,employee face-to-face in depth interview, experts consultation were used in designing the framework of measurement instrument of presenteeism.Cross-section investigation and SWOT analysis were used in this study as well.Results1.We identify that presenteeismconsisting the fellowingfacets that the employee’s work efficiency become lower or effective work time reduced because ofemployees’ health problem.Presenteeism is closely related with absenteeism.2.We develope a framework for designing measurement instruments of presenteeism for Chinese high-technology knowledge worker:About the general health status of the employee:we measured the employee’s self perception of their health.The recall time is four weeks and the measure instrument is scale.(?)About the declining of work efficiency:we will measure the quantity of the declining of work efficiency,The memory time is four weeks,using ten point scale to measure.(?)About the absenteeism:we will measure the hours of absenteeism,The memory time is four weeks.3.The measurement instrument of presenteeism for Chinese high-technology knowledge worker: The scale of the general health status including eight dimensionalities as below: Ache,Symptoms,Sleeping problem,Attention,Bad emotion,Pressure,Fatigue, Social adapting.Their cronbach’s a are respectively 0.79,0.83,0.75,0.69,0.83,0.86, 0.80,0.88.Their half Spearman-Browns are espectively 0.78,0.75,0.61,0.62,0.82, 0.81,0.77,0.88.Goodness of fit test model index as below:X2/dfis 3.68,NFI(Normed fit index)is 0.95,NNFI(Non-normaed fit index)is 0.96,CFI(Comparative Fit Index)is 0.96,SRMR(Standardied Root Mean Residual)is 0.05,RMSEA(Root Mean Squre Error of Approximation)is 0.05.The relate coefficient with SF-36 is 0.55.4.The survey results using the instrument developed by this study reveal:Six dimensionalities are bad in the total eight dimensionalities.According to the seveity,we can rank the dimensionalities from high to low as below:Social adapting, Fatigue,Sleep problem,Bad emotion,Ache,Pressure.The main behaviors problems are Little physical activity and Smoking.The main diseases are Chronic back/neck pain,Chronic fatigue,Migraine headaches,Anxiety disorder,Chronic sleeping problems,Any other chronic pain,Chronic heartburn or GERD,Depression,Frequent nausea/gas/indigestion,An ulcer in stomach or intestine.The percentage of the cost resulted by presenteeism is 67.9%.5.The results of SWOT analysis about health and productivity:(?)Strengths:The enterprise has built up the notion that health means productivity among the employees.The special sector was set to be responsible for the managemnet the employees’s health.The enterprise has a initial plan about how to integrate the resource to carry out health and productivity activities.(?)Weakness:The enterprise have not a specific goal and strategy about how to carry out programme of health and productivity now,and be lack of the basic data.(?)Threats:There will be a long way for the enterprise to go because of no ready experiences and principles to fellow. (?)Opportunities:There are many health manage organizations and health manage specialists to provide the human and method supports.Conclusions1.The innovative contribution of the study are:(?)We had carried out the presenteeism measuremeng study for the first time in China.(?)We had put forward the framework of measurement instrument of presenteeism for Chinese high-technology knowledge worker for the first time in China.(?)We had built up the measurement instrument of presenteeism of Chinese high-technology knowledge worker for the first time in China.(?)There are some breakthroughs,comparing our measure instrument with the oversea congenerice instruments.(?)We had carried out the investigation of presenteeism in a high-technology enterprise and calculated the potential cost for the first time in China.2.We had paid more attention on the qualities controls in study design stage and investigation stage to ensure the truth of results.3.There are no any harm to the research objects in the whole study process, informed consent were obtained.4.Deficiencies of the study are the terms of the scale coming from the existing scale,the expression do not ideally accorded with the study objects normal expression way.