The Research of Opium Plague in South-western China in Late Qing Dynasty and Kuoming Governance
|Keywords||Late Qing Republic of China Southwest Pernicious influence of opium|
Late Qing Dynasty, southwest of opium flooded, from the perspective of history and geography of this period southwest of opium cultivation distribution, some of the issues and circumstances of the transport path, production and sales, and to analyze the the opium formation of the pernicious influence of reason and affected. China's modern history has always been accompanied by opium cultivation, transportation, sale and smoking, and the southwest region is the main producing areas of the old Chinese opium. This article describes what is opium, opium comes from, how to evolve into drugs. That the opium of the late Qing Dynasty began to spread, the Republic of flooded. Quotidian is the initial cause of opium in the southwest region, is becoming more and more important reason, opium into the day-to-day consumer goods, and thus become a drug from the drug. The late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of Yunnan opium cultivation, production and marketing situation is the focus of this study. The proliferation of opium is divided into two periods in the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of the Republican period, depending on the policy, is divided into three stages to explore the different times at different stages of Yunnan opium cultivation sales. This paper argues that Yunnan opium proliferation of Yunnan climate, this period of financial and huge market demand has a significant relationship. In addition, the late Qing Dynasty Sichuan, Guizhou pernicious influence of opium situation is very grim. This paper argues that adjacent to Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou opium problem is an extension of the opium problem in Yunnan, but also inextricably linked with the financial problems of warlordism. Southwest of opium has a broad market support and facilitate the distribution network. This paper argues that the provinces there is a large number of consumers, the presence of a large smoking population is the strong support of the southwest of opium cultivation. And the adjacent Guangxi, Chongqing is an important transportation route in the southwest of opium. To opium crops, but also winter crops, if not a wide range of planting, it nicely complements rice and other food crops, it is advantageous for the population, but the proliferation of opium, crowding out farmland, affecting the agricultural production, leading to a vicious circle of morbid economy. Southwest of this zone both opium cultivation is very suitable climatic and geographical conditions, but also because of the marginalization of the geographical divisions and makes the Qing court can not be placed under the direct control, while there is a very convenient road transportation network, coupled with the officials, warlords interests involved become the areas most suitable for the cultivation of opium. In addition, the the southwest of opium huge market share, in turn, led the development of opium poppy cultivation, opium poppy cultivation throughout the southwest, formed all over the country's opium production, distribution and consumption networks.