The Eternal Symbol
|School||Central Academy of Fine Arts|
|Course||Art of Design|
|Keywords||Monument Public Art Chinese Art History Symbol National values Ancient Chinese Architecture Tiananmen Square Spirit of national culture Urban Public Space Dialectical study|
Monument, as architecture, is an important type of public art in the history of art and architecture. We can go into the system of a nation’s history, culture and humanism. The Monument to the People’s Heroes is the first grand monument constructed by the state since the founding of New China. It’s the most important, super-huge construction of public art in the art history of New China in terms of time, location, measurement, shape, organization and financial investment.As a large-scale public art construction, the Monument to the People’s Heroes is a combination of architecture, painting and sculpture. The thesis intends to make a dialectic observation of it in which all kinds of social, cultural and artistic factors interact, and also a comparative study and considerate analysis under a much broader social and historical circumstances. The traditional thread about the monument, the relationship between the monument and the city’s public space, between sculpture and construction of the monument, the organization, management, economy and technology of a large-scale public art project, are all the objects of study of this thesis in addition to the study and analysis about the designer and work in traditional art history.The first chapter discusses the public nature of a monument as an art of architecture, and goes on is the discussion about the ethical function of architecture and the effect of a monument on mankind’s spiritual life and conception of national value and cohesion. A necessary explanation is also given here about the methodology of art history, by which the thesis is composed. Chapter 2 is mainly about the condition of domestic study on the Monument to the People’s Heroes. From the angles of historical threads of architecture and environment and the planning of modern cities, chapter 3 reflects the history and changes of Tian An Men Square where the Monument to the People’s Heroes is located. Thereof the thesis explores the important, indicative meaning of the exposure and the location of the Monument to the People’s Heroes in the central area of capital city Beijing. The study on the public art ’s organizational and managerial of the Monument to the People’s Heroes in chapter 4 can give us a better understanding about the historical root of the common managerial model for large public art projects in China now. The main parts of the thesis are from Chapter 5 to chapter 7. From the historical and cultural angles of architecture, chapter 5 explores the design of the Monument to the People’s Heroes, the traditional stone tablet system of China and the architectural threads connection of ancient China, with the attempt to expose the prototype of the form and style of art history on which the ethos the shape design of the Monument to the People’s Heroes reflects is based. Chapter 6 and chapter 7 bring in the historical changes in the art design group of the Monument to the People’s Heroes, then discuss its art creation process ,the method and the characteristics in style in embossment art from the aspects of painting, sculpture and their relationships with architecture. Chapter 8 studies the project management of the Monument to the People’s Heroes from the economic and technical sides and supplies more detailed basic materials about the Monument. The last chapter, from the angle of comparative study, discusses the external effect on China’s sculpture art in 1950s and the effect the Monument to the People’s Heroes has on New China’s commemorative public art. The writer here tries to sum up some essential characteristics of the Monument to the People’s Heroes and the great significance it has in the art history of New China.