3-5 years old children 's developmental characteristics of independence and Factors Influencing
|School||Liaoning Normal University|
|Course||Developmental and Educational Psychology|
|Keywords||Child Independence Autonomy Confirmatory factor analysis Second factor experimental design|
Independence (or autonomy) is an important topic of psychological research, relative to other areas at home and abroad about the independence of the research is still limited in terms of theoretical and empirical research is weak and, therefore, the urgent need of scientific theories construct and the specific characteristics and influencing factors of the development of children's independence. This study used a combination of theoretical and empirical, quantitative and qualitative comprehensive way to explore the structure of a 3 to 5-year-old children's independence, stability and variability, the development characteristics and influencing factors, research the development of the children's independence provide a scientific basis for the theory, family and kindergartens to develop children's independence. A study for 3 to 5-year-old children's independence structure study aimed to explore the structure of the 3 to 5-year-old children's independence. The study on the basis of the theoretical construct, compiled 110 3 to 5-year-old children's independence questionnaire, through project analysis screening subject, retained the 47 items of the questionnaire. Then with the 47 items of the questionnaire, using another sample confirmatory factor analysis, 20 items reserved; then 20 items of the questionnaire, validated with another sample, the results showed that 20 items of the model structure is reasonable. The 20 items of the questionnaire further validated in Dandong and Jinzhou City. Multi confirmatory factor analysis results show that: the questionnaire has good reliability, validity, and can be used as the assessment of the independence of the basis of the age of children; 2.3 to 5-year-old children's independence by the self-reliance, self-control and self-advocates three dimensions constitute. The second study of the stability of the 3 to 5-year-old children's independence and variability. The experimental design using two factors, a 3 to 5-year-old children in the presence of different task difficulty and different objects situational independence. The research results show that 3 to 5 years of age is a critical period for the development of children's independence, specific performance in three areas, a children's independence gradually from unstable to stable development of the 3-year-old, 4-year-old children's independence stability initial development, to the independence of children age 5 showed strong stability, the independence of the performance of children in various situations are exactly the same; 2. situational greater impact on children's independence, self-reliance and self-advocates affected by the difficulty of task, children completed the difficult task showed a strong dependence and herd; self-control by the double impact of task difficulty and the presence of the object, wayward children in the completion of a difficult task and the mother is present when the degree will be enhanced ; 3. development of children's independence there are obvious differences in the type. 3,4 age children independence development of type consistency, there are five distinct types, to the age of five, one type disappears, and replaced by another type, 3 to 5-year-old children independence development faster times. This study also discusses the characteristics of the development dimension of the 3 to 5-year-old children's independence. Study for 3 to 5-year-old study of factors affecting the development of children's independence, the study using qualitative research methods, the first phase of ethnographic research, the study for the independence of the experimental class culture. Researchers experimental class two-year ethnographic study, the initial concept of the focus group interview, and then conducted a comprehensive analysis of the factors that affect children's independence and generalization. The second stage is a combination of structural and non-structural interviews. Gradually produced in the first stage of the process of ethnographic research, and clarity of a research hypothesis that teachers give children freedom and limited scale and the appropriateness of praise and criticism has a crucial impact on the development of children's independence. On this basis, established 15 interview subject experimental class I lt; WP = gt; teachers of 3 to 5-year-old children's developmental characteristics of independence and influence factors of the 300-minute focus group interviews. The results found that relaxed atmosphere is the premise of culture independence; 2 handle the relationship between freedom and restriction kindergarten training key to children's independence; family is affecting kindergarten culture effect an important factor; 4 children individual differences is the basis for the development of independence. This study on the basis of comprehensive analysis and discussion of the three research the following conclusions: In this study, prepared in the 3 to 5-year-old children's independence questionnaire has good reliability and validity, as parents and teachers to assess children's independence basis. 3 to 5-year-old children's independence by the three dimensions, self-reliance, self-control and self-advocates. Based on self-reliance, self-control and self-advocates harmonious development is the key to the development of children's independence. 3 to 5 years of age is the initial formation period of the independence of the child. The independence of the development of children 3 to 5 years old by the family, kindergarten, and the characteristics of a variety of factors.