Dissertation > Political, legal > Diplomacy, international relations > International relations

On International System and New World Order

Author KongQingYin
Tutor LiuQingCai
School Jilin University
Course International political
Keywords International System System Change New World Order
Type PhD thesis
Year 2005
Downloads 1295
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After the end of the Cold War, the bipolar pattern disintegrated. The world order is in the historically transitional period, which makes the construction of new world order advance agenda. Practically, main powers of the world put forward political opinions about the new world order in succession and carry them out by all kinds of international activities. Theoretically, scholars in all countries carry out theoretical construction and academic explanation to the new world order in the different views. International system is on consanguineous terms with world order. International system is the integration of interactional various units and elements. World orders are all based on international system. After the end of the Cold War, important change has occurred to the international system. The construction of new world order on the new base of international system becomes the core problems of international theory and practice. International system as visual angle and cut-point, the dissertation studies structural features, dynamic structure and control mechanism of international system, analyzes the important changes of international system after the end of Cold War, and tries to discuss the construction of new world order in the view of international system. The dissertation tries to give a tentative exploration to it. The dissertation is divided into five chapters. Chapter I. The Research Paradigm of International System World order is a permanent topic human continuing exploring in the theory of international relations. The orders come with the human civilization simultaneously. In the ancient times, Plato and Aristotle discussed the order of polis. With the birth of state and the beginning of interstate intercourse, thinkers began to discuss world order. Firstly, world order was always connected with war. The thinker studied deep cause of conflict and war happening among countries. They explored channels and ways preventing war and maintaining peace in the view of constructing world order. The study on international system has a distant source and a long stream. In the "History of the Peloponnesian War", Thucydides, a historian in ancient Greece, described and analyzed interrelations of inter-parts in the system of Greece and Persia. International system has consanguineous relations with world order. Each kind of international system has a world order correspondingly. International system is an integration of units and key elements of having specific property of mutual promotion. World order is a norm of the mutual promotion and operation. The construction of world order presupposes the specific international system. The development and transformation of the world order are influenced by international system. World order is feasible in reality supposed that it is constructed on the basis of experience and observation to the specific international system. Compared to previous world order, the studies on world order press more close to reality and carry out easily in reality in the view of international system. The theory of international system views international society as a whole building having inner connections and structural features of their own in the view of entire international system. It surmounts single entity and state and tries to conduct an integrated study on the whole to the characters, features, movements and the process of transformation at an angle of system and structural function. The construction of new world order after post-Cold War is based on the international system after post-Cold War. Only under the circumstance of grasping the changes ofinternational system after post-Cold War, can we construct new world order rationally. Trying to use international system as cut-point, starting with structural features, dynamic structure and control mechanism of international system, the dissertation deeply and systematically analyzes important changes of the international system after post-Cold War. Based on it, the dissertation discusses the construction of new world order. Chapter Ⅱ. The Structural Features of International System All systems have identifiable features, which include permutation principle, component unit (i.e. actors), inter-actors’interaction and power allocation among units. International actors are basic units of composing international system. With the development of international relations, the recognition to international actors continually develops and changes. The actors of international system come though developmental process from unitary to military. At first, it mainly showed state-actor. With the continual increase and development of international organization quantitatively, people began to study international system beyond traditional centered-state. The sovereignty is still the most fundamental actor in the contemporary international system. International anarchical situation is still important characteristic of international system. It is a theoretical hypothesis of international relations. Compared to domestic society, international society has no uniform world government or uniform center authority. In the international system, the relationships among sovereign states are equal and not subject. There is no country having the power to issue orders. Therefore, the international system is in the situation of anarchy. This kind of international anarchical situation is not the same as disorder and chaos. Continual order factors, including norms and institutions coordinating the interstate relationships, exist all along in the international relations.Power distribution among countries decides character and characteristic of international system in international system. World pattern is external appearance of power distribution situation of international system. In history, world order mainly showed institutional arrangement regional or world powers maintaining power distribution. It reflected power distribution in the international system. With change of international strength comparison, maintaining or breaking status quo of world order became intense fight of international power distribution. After the end of Cold War, international system is in the historical period from bipolarity to multipolarity, which has decisive influence on the construction of new world order. Charter Ⅲ. The Dynamic Structure of International System In international system, interests and power are still the most important drive. As component unit, each country maintain each self’s independence, sovereign, survival and development as the most fundamental requirement. The relationships of interstate interests have important influence on international relations. In modern international relations, state interests become the most important factor of interstate interaction. State interests are a basic drive of a country’s external behavior. Interstate cooperation, competition and conflict are always surrounding mutual interests and rights. Power is a kind of capacity of control and influence. It is decided countries’integrated national power and international status. It reflects the relationships of dominance and under dominance. In the real international system, the process of maintaining and carrying out state interests always represent pursuing and enlarging international power. The characteristic of international anarchical situation decides that countries build self-help system and continual try for maintaining and enlarging one self’s international power. However, the basic way of guaranteeing state interests approximately follows the use of power.After post-Cold War, nations pursue for interests and power unremittingly, which push international system develops forward. As long as the world is constituted by the nations in politics, the interests of nations will take the crucial function. But in the era of globalization, the ways and means of pursuing national interests have being changed, and in the most situations nations combine their absolute and relative rewarding together in consideration. The moderate power is the most credible safeguard for nations’survival. Based on this international system, new international order has to be built on the harmony and the balance of the conflicting interests. As the foundations of the international order, the power changes, so international order will change consequentially. After post-Cold War the bipolar pattern has broken down, and the distribution of power has changed remarkably, the new world order has to be built up on the basis of new international system. Chapter Ⅳ. The Restrict Regimes of International System Anarchical situation of international society doesn’t mean chaos or disorder. On the contrary, the relations of the actors are always in order. The balance of power among the states is the most important restrict regime; there are other institutional factors, such as interaction rules, norms and laws; international organizations exert concerted effect. As restrict regimes, these factors guarantee the world in order, and make the international society, which there is not a central government in circle of order—disorder--order. After Cold War, there is a series of rule, norm, international law and international organizations in existence broadly, and the efficacy of them are enhancing. This decreased the negative influence of international anarchy in some degree, and make the order of the world more visible. At the same time, the restrict regimes of international system are also principles, rules and systemic foundations of the construction of new world order. It is through the principles, rules and regimes accepted by international society, the world ordercan be protected in effect. Even if the world order changed, the intrinsic basic principles and norms would be still in existence and exert some effects. So under the background of the increase of the international regimes in international system after Cold War, the new world order should be constructed on the basis of these rules, norms and so on. Chapter Ⅴ. The Rational Construction of The New World Order The end of the Cold War made the establishment of new world order in agenda. Constructing new world order rationally starting off the existent international system is the aim of this article. On the basis of analysis of connections between structural characters, driving force, restrict regimes of and new world order, taking the changes of international system after the Cold War into account, the author considers that new world order of global governance should be constructed on sovereignties as the basic actors, multipolar pattern as structural basis, multilateral coordination as regimes, harmony of interests as value basis. In the era of globalization, delaminating trend of state sovereign emerges. It suffers from challenge and impact from internal and external factors. However, it still holds many particular power resources. No can replace the authority and function of state. Though sovereignties are not the only actor in the process of the construction of new world order any more, they are still the most basic actor in the world order. Power pattern of international system has changed after the end of Cold War. It is in the transitional period from bipolarity to mulitipolarity. Therefore, new world order should construct on the basis of mulipolarization of world pattern. International regimes and international institutions are one of basic terms carrying out world order on contemporary world. Effective international regimes and international institutions are important factors, which make world order maintain and continue. In the era of globalization, new world order not only should seek interests’balance among states, but also seek harmony

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