The Distribution Characteristics of Osmiophilic Granules in Tobacco Leaves at Different Altitudes and the Relationship with the Quality of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves of Huili
|School||Henan Agricultural University|
|Keywords||Huili tobacco-growing areas altitude osmiophilic granules comprehensive evalution of flue-cured tobacco quality correlation analysis|
Based on statistical method such as multiple comparison, frequency analysis, index and method, linear stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and optimal curve regression and grey relational analysis, the relation between distribution characteristics of osmiophilic granules content in the tobacco-planted area of Huili and the tobacco quality on the main cultivation variety Honghuadajinyuan of SiChuan province during 2009-2010.The main research conclusions are as follows:1. Results of distribution characteristics on osmiophilic granules content at different altitudes showed as follows: osmiophilic granules content in Huili was 45.54 at average, with the minimum being 18, maximum 84. Variation coefficient was big, which achieved 26.65%.The simples whose content was less than 20 which held 0.8% of the samples with 20-40 for 30.80%,40-60 for 54.40%,60-80 for 13.60%.The proportion which exceeded 80 was just 0.4%.Most of osmiophilic granules content distributed between 40 and 60. It presented symmetric type approximately as a whole.2. The results of quality evaluation on the tobacco leaves at different altitudes in Huili showed as follows: External appearance of all tobacco leaves at different altitudes behaved well on the whole, among which the proportion of orange leaves reached 95%. In addition to the altitude of 2100m, chrominance of other altitudes were strong. The maturity of leaves at altitude of 1800m was best, and lower leaves scored low. There were ripe blades which held a little proportion. The oil of upper and middle leaves at all altitudes were rich, and the oil of lower leaves were little. Judging from the leaf structure, most of leaves were porous, but the upper leaves were still slightly tight, which felt a little close. Each target of physical characteristics is relatively appropriate at different altitudes in Huili. The middle leaves were longest and widest, and lower leaves were shortest and narrowest. The upper leaves were thickest, and lower were thinnest. The thickness of leaves at middle and low altitudes were relatively appropriate, but the high altitudes leaves were a little thick. Tension of the tobacco leaves in the region of Huili was high generally. Tension of lower leaves was obviously less than upper and middle ones, and there were no significant difference between the middle and the upper. Filling force was approximately similar among each position, and middle leaves has higher filling force in most of regions, with lower leaves following.The upper leaves were heavier than the middle ones, and the lower leaves were the lightest. The density of upper leaves was higher than the middle and lower leaves, and the density of high altitude area was significantly higher than the relatively low altitude area. Most of the balance moisture content was between 13%-14%, and it was not significantly different among different positions, with the middle leaves being highest. The stem ratio was about 30% in each position and it was lager in middle and lower leaves. High sugar-nicotine ratio were the main characteristic of tobacco conventional chemical composition at different altitudes in the region of Huili, which was probably a main reason for the style of fragrance and sweet. Meanwhile, tobacco potassium content is insufficient, and chlorine content was suitable. Overall it was humorous on chemical composition, and the content is relatively appropriate. On the whole distribution rule of Maillard reactant was as follows: middle leaves > upper leaves >lower leaves, but there were no differences between the upper and the lower. It was highest at 2000m among the upper leaves and it was highest at 1900m among the middle leaves. The content of Phenylalanine substances were less than other varieties of fragrance. It was the highest at 2000m among the upper leaves, and at 1900 among the middle leaves. It was the highest at 1900m among upper leaves, 2000m among middle leaves, 1800m among the lower leaves for Cembratriendid alkyl degrading products. The content of carotinoid substances were higher than other kinds of aroma, and it was the highest at 1900m no matter among upper leaves or middle leaves. It was highest in middle leaves for neophytadiene content and it was highest at 1900m among the middle leaves. The quality, quantity of aroma and the feeling of returning to sweet for tobacco leaves were good at different altitudes in Huili. The taste quality of tobacco leaves was the best at 1900m. Miscellaneous gases were obvious at low altitudes, and the quantity of aroma was a little lack at high altitudes. It were better at 1800m, 1900m than others for comprehensive quality. Based on exponential sum to calculate comprehensive quality of flue-cured tobacco at different altitudes in Huili, It was excellent at 1800m, 1900m.3. The Osmiophilic Granules content of Huili tobacco growing areas’tobacco leaf and the flue-cured tobacco quality’s relationship analysis result indicated: the Osmiophilic Granules content of tobacco leaf and the maturity assumed the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, and with between the oil, the intensity assumed the remarkable correlational dependence, and the status partial correlation coefficient which between the color, the leaf structure and the body had not achieved the remarkable level. The Osmiophilic Granules content of tobacco leaf and the surface density of leaf assumed the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, and assumed the extremely remarkable inverse correlation relations with stem ratio, and the relations between the indicators of the thickness,filling value etc. were not remarkable. The osmiophilic granules content of tobacco leaf with the reducing sugar content and the nicotine content, assumed the extremely remarkable correlational dependence, and assumed the remarkable correlational dependence with the total sugar, and with the ratio of reducing sugar to total nicotine and the ratio of Potassium to Chlorine had not achieved the remarkable level compared to between partial correlation coefficient. The relations between the osmiophilic granules content of tobacco leaf and neutral aroma substances were close, and had the greatest impact on the content of neophytadiene and carotenoids degrading products. There is a positive correlativity of quality, quantity, tender degrees, volatility, aftertaste, sweetness, miscellaneous gas, quality index and total score to eosinophilic granular osmium tetroxide content. Degree of association was ranked as follows: quantity of aroma> tender degrees> volatility > sweetness> total score> quality of aroma> miscellaneous gas> aftertaste> thrill. osmiophilic granules content and various quality indexesof tobacco leaves undertook recursive an analysis. The results demonstrated that eosinophilic granular osmium tetroxide content and various quality indexes had close relations. Regression equation between osmiophilic granules content and appearance quality index, the index of physical characteristics, taste quality index, comprehensive quality index was significant or very significant level. On the whole, all the indexes rise with the increase of osmiophilic granules content. When the content raised up to 50-55, the indexes decreased with the increase of content. Correlation order was ranked as follows: the index of physical characteristics> comprehensive quality index> appearance quality index> taste quality index> chemical composition index.