The Characteristics of Cognitive and Emotional Processing and Its Brain Mechanism in Heroin Abstainers
|Keywords||Heroin Abstainers Relapse Negative emotional cues Attentional bias Abstinence time course|
The influence of drug abuse on the mental function and the influence of this change on the maintenance of addictive behavior and relapse have always been of great importance in drug dependence research, especially in the field of psychology. However, at the present time, there exist too many differences in the researches of addiction and relapse in terms of research direction, hypothesis, content and research method to obtain an integrated theoretical model. In the present study, seven experiments were conducted to explore the characteristics of cognitive and emotional processirLg and its brain mechanism in heroin abstainers by studying their reactions toward drug related cues and negative emotional cues. The results of this study are of great importance not only for the construction of an integrated theoretical model accounting for cognitive and emotional processing in heroin abstainers but also for clinical practice. The main findings of this study are as follows:(1) Compared with non-users, attentional bias and preattention toward drug-related cues was significant in heroin abstainers;(2) Heroin abstainers showed significant emotional bias toward the negative physical event cues;(3) Heroin abstainers showed significant emotional bias and preattention to negative emotional stimuli;(4) Heroin related cues evoked a larger amplitude of P2 and P3 in the prefrontal andmidline area, negative emotional stimuli evoked a shorter latency of P2 in the electrode locations Fz than neutral cues;(5) The characteristics of cognitive and emotional processing did not change along the treating process.(6) Drug-related cues and negative physical event cues had the same effect in invoking heroin craving, and the effect decreased along the treating process; but the negative social or mental cues invoked greater heroin craving and it remained stable along the treating process.