On Marx and Hegel's Concept of History \
|Course||The philosophy of Marxism|
|Keywords||Pure Thinking and Sensible Activity Idea of Freedom and Principle of Capital World-History and Human-Society Revolution of Philosophy and Critique of Modernity|
History possesses a crucial significance as Truth, the Wholeness and the Absolute both to Marx and Hegel. In this case, the discussion on the difference of "the Idea of History" between Marx and Hegel necessarily and firstly need review their philosophical-ontological foundation. Marx’s Critique of Hegel’s Idea of History bears two significances of "Critique of Metaphysics" and "Critique of Modernity", because Hegel thinks his "History Philosophy" hold the "History in itself as " The Modern World" in itself-the last moment of Man’s history."Nous governs the world" and "the Identity of Thought and Being" stand as Western civilization’s old faith. And it makes the Greek Philosophy (Plato and Aristotle) aiming at grasping the Idea of world possess genuine "speculative" character. The displacement of "History" over "World" as the object of Philosophical Meditation roots from the Judaism-Christian tradition. So Christian’s philosophers explicitly proposed the Idea of "Universal History" for the first time. But in Hegel’s eyes, the illustration of the Providence in History, namely "the History in itself, need precisely revert to the Greek speculative-philosophy tradition. We pursue the realization of Hegel’s "Revert" from three sides: (1) By his critique of the modernphilosophy-the Metaphysics before Kant, Empiricism, Critical Philosophy andImmediate or Intuitive Knowledge, clarify that the "Identity" in the "Identity of Thought and Being" is "Pure Thinking", and that the Speculative Philosophy just means quest for the truth or untruth of thought-determination (category) in itself; (2) Through the Self-inspection of "consciousness form", display a phenomenological road towards the Idea of "Spirit" in which the subjectivity of thought have been abrogated; (3) In the context of shaking off the opposition between subject and object, display the logical road of category-processing setting foot on concepts, i.e. the immediate existential manner of thought in-itself.The illustrated Idea of "Spirit" and Principle of "subject-substance" can be regarded as the thought premise of Hegel’s inspecting of history as well as the "World History" in-itself in terms of their enriched contents. Philosophy of History is the historical guidance of the Philosophy of Right, and the latter becomes the former’s logical content as well as the relationship between the History of Philosophy and the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences. Through inspecting the historical and the logical moments of "Freedom Idea", we tries to indicate: (l)that "Abstract Right","Moral Will" and the "Civil Society" as ethical entity constitute the genuine moments of Hegel’s Modern State as actual Idea of Freedom; (2) that, in Hegel’s eyes, thought, will and physical desire are three faces of the existence of human, and only Reason (the existence as thought and will) comes into the field of his philosophy, thereby the so-called indefinite moments of Idea only includes "Nature" and "Spirit".Marx’s critique of Hegel’s "Idea of History" contains some key moments: (l)Through the critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, Marx shows the "Logical Mysticism "of Hegel’s philosophy of Right and the theory of State and the "logic formulation" of Hegel’s whole philosophy, and makes it clear that the essence or the genuine foundation of the antinomies in modern world lies in the universal conflicts between the individual and citizen and the conflicts of interest in civil society; (2) Through the critique of Hegel’s dialectic and general philosophy, displays the "non-critical positivism" and the same "non-critical idealism" of Hegel’s speculative philosophy, and Marx’s positive fruit is the revolution n of philosophical-ontological principle measured by the discovery of "objectivity in-itself" and "objectivity activity";(3) through the critique of Political Economy, Socialism in France and the theory wave of Communism, displays the alienation of modern labor, the positive essence of separate property and the foundation of human history as sensible activity .The discovery of sensible-objectivity activity principle predicates that Marx’s critique of Hegel’s idea of history exceeds the simple "Reversal" of "Idealism". It is precisely on the foundation of the new philosophical-ontological principle (sensible activity) can Marx builds up completely different interpretation frame of the "History" from Hegel’s, and completes the critique of Modernity at a principle altitude through genuine positive "Historical Science": (1) Through the "Production" of "Material Conditions of life" but not "thought" and any other elements, Marx positions the concept of "Real Individuals" as the theory beginning of Historical Materialism, and the analysis of "Primitive Historical Relationships" can be regarded as the broad expression of the concepts of "Sensible Activity ", "Production", "Praxis" and "Real Individuals"; (2) Through the clarifying of the character, as "alienation", of the contrary movement between "Productivity" and "Productive Relationship", "the Economical Foundation " and "Superstructure", opens up the genuine foundation of the prehistoric stage of human society which were from the "Genuine Division" to the complete realization of "Private Property", and shows clearly the necessary reformation of philosophy in post-metaphysics(ideology) age; (3) Through "the Critique of Political Economy "as the original attempt of "Historical Science",displays the existential principle of capital production manner in itself and capital’s significance and limit in the evolution of human history.In a word, this paper tries to elucidate that the difference in the "Idea of History" between Marx and Hegel can not be overlooked as some different interpretations of one fact; on the contrary, it belongs to the difference of "Thing in itself. And it is the difference of philosophical-ontological foundation as well as the difference of man’s existential principle and condition. The practical transition of this difference in principle or Marx’s really overcoming over Hegel must stand its (his) feet on the Communism movement which would make "World-History" turning into "Human-Society".