|School||Capital Normal University|
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||The republic of China making new people arousing people popular education civilian education demos education social education|
In the Chinese modern history, saving the nation from extinction was an initial and crux problem. Reforming education and training "new people" was the basic tactic. The people realized this and put it into practice, thus grasping tightly the foundation of the nation. Since the late Qing Dynasty, the propaganda and enlightenment from the reformists and the revolutionaries took effects mostly in the educational and political circles, but few common people were aware of it. In the Republic of China, with the push from the intelligentsia and personages as well as with the government supports in many ways, the social education aimed at educating large citizens carried on for more than 30 years continuously.The research of the social education history of the Republic of China in the last decade is an academic growth point. The pity is that researchers in the past just made a sketch of the history of this period, leaving a big research space to explore. The thesis focuses on the study of the aims, inner connections and characteristics of the social education in the Republic of China from a new and overall perspective. And the writer attempts to give his own opinions and comments. What this thesis studies is the social education in a narrow sense, namely the organized education activity with clear plans and purposes except home education and the common school education. The social education of the Chinese Communist Party and the social education of the puppet regime under Japan aren’t in the scope of this thesis. The writer thinks the popular education and the civilian education all belong to social education. The difference between Demos education and the social education is just the both sides of the same academic proposition. Social education emphasizes its scope of teaching; demos education emphasizes its objects of teaching. But the name of the social education is more suitable because it constituted a complete education sequence with home education and school education. The concept of the popular education, the civilian education, demos education in this thesis can be all integrated in the category of the social education. It isn’t the logic provision that depends on abstraction, but depends mainly on one problem. The problem is bringing up "new people".Chapter 1 discusses the basic causes of social education that continued to the Republic of China from the late Qing Dynasty. Through the numerous and complicated history phenomena, the aim of the Republic of China social education can be generalized for "making new people" and "arousing new people". It is also the basic cause that the social education were pushed forward from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republic of China. In the early of the Republic of China, Yan-Yangchu started the civilian education, taking the "making new people" as an aim. "The new people" refer to people with 4 forces—knowledge, productivity, health and solidarity. The slogan of "arousing new people" came from "The Will and Testament" by SunYat-sen. Yan-Yangchu said what they worked hard was the work of "arousing new people" that Mr. Sun Yat-sen promoted. Kuomintang Central Training Department also explained that demos education was "arousing people". From the standpoints of "encourage people’s force, increase people’s knowledge, improve the people’s virtuous" of Yan-fu to the "new people theory" of Liang-Qichao, and the opinion of "saving the country and making new people" of Chen-Duxiu, then the slogan of "making new people" of Yan-Yangchu and "arousing people" of Kuomintang. What they have in common is the spirit of bringing up new citizens. The modern style school education contained many good results, but it also produced some bad results in the meantime. The modern style educational system, content of the courses and the teaching methods were foreign, resulting in the inferiority complex of the whole nation. And the school education lacked of Chinese features. Teaching became disjointed with society and the universal education was not enough. The education of this period undertook the glorious and historic mission. It was not only to arouse the people to fight against imperialism and for independence but also awaken the consciousness of self-liberation. The slogan "making new people" mainly reflected the valuable rational of the social education, while "arousing people" reflected mainly the tool rational of the social education. This is exactly the logical starting point of this thesis.Chapter 2 discusses the progress of the republic social education development. By analyzing the different periods divided by scholars about the Republic of China in a chronological way. The writer gets two aspects of basis: first is the successive changing of the political power; second is the outstanding characteristics of the social education. On the grounds of the above, the writer divides the republic social education history briefly into four periods: (1) the popular education period: From 1912 to 1918, the social education was really established. This period paid much attention to popular education. (2) the civilian education period: Froml919 tol927, the development of the social education was widely accepted and developed. (3) the demos education period: From 1928 tol937, the social education was extended completely, covering all society. (4) the wartime social education: From 1938 to 1949, this period was placed in the Anti-Japanese War and later the Civil War. For the contents of the second and third periods social education, it is talked about more by scholars, while the popular education and the wartime social education which were rarely talked about. Therefore the writer emphasizes to generalize some details.Chapter 3 discusses the social education administration of the Republic of China. The social education administration includes the establishment of the institutions and rules, the personnel’s training and the educational funds. For the first two aspects, some former treatises discussed a lot. However materials are rarely seen about the latter. That is what the writer analyzes briefly.Chapter 4 discusses the republic social education facilities. The facilities can be divided into two kinds. One is of the school type and the other is of the social type. The facility that belongs to the school type can’t be placed on a par with that of the common school. There were differences in the aspects of educating objects, teaching materials, courses and class time and various targets. The facility that belongs to the social type includes all kinds of gyms and museums. In addition, the all-level schools also became the place that carried out social education in the 1940’s. Among them, the people’s educating institution was a comprehensive organization, while schools, libraries, museums were single-teaching organization established all over the country. Although a few science museums, the courtesy and music schools were set up, they have special and tremendous symbolic significance. So the writer chooses the above six types of facilities to discuss intensively and analyzes the related information to talk about some problems that has never been involved before in former studies such as museums, science museums, courtesy and music schools.Chapter 5 discusses the main social education business in the Republic of China. In the early Republic of China, popular lecture was outstanding. The civilian education took learning words education as center in the early years, later turning to carry out four kinds of education, namely literature education, hygiene education, livelihood education, citizen education. In Nanking government period, the social education contents increased. The Ministry of Education enumerated three major types covering 58 items in the report of the national social education facilities in 1931, almost including the whole education activity besides the common school education. The writer mainly chooses the six businesses to analyze which are the popular lecture, the learning words education, the popular literature, the livelihood education, the social athletics, the education with electrical audio-visual aids. The six education businesses lasted a long time and influenced society widely although former researchers seldom referred to them.Chapter 6 analyzes the characteristics, results, bad practices and its restricting factors of the social education evolution in the Republic of China. The evolution had five characteristics: from the demonstration teaching into the experimenting teaching in some areas; from taking lessons in the agricultural spare time into the countryside construction; from the supplementary organization with subsidy into the formal educational system; from pure learning words education into the whole national saving country education and the academic and systemizing social education. The social education thoughts of the Republic of China offered much precious spirit inheritance for future generations. The facilities such as libraries, museums, science museums etc. were used by the future generations. And the relevant rules were also the basis of the social education or adult education afterwards. The results weren’t excellent at all. However, we would never call it futility. We can’t deny the social education achievements they made. Meanwhile, they did meet with lots of inside and outside difficulties and obstacles. Putting forward and implementing the social education was originally to rectify some shortcomings of the school education, but there is a long between subjective wishes and objective results. So it resulted in the following problems. The social education theories hadn’t yet been systematized. The social education facilities and businesses concentrated in cities but neglected villages unlike the so-called "overall bloom". And the teaching methods were not appropriate. The main reasons lie in 3 aspects. First, in the social economic aspect, the republic economy was undeveloped and the public finance became difficult. People occupied in earning a living with no time to accept education. Second, in the social political aspect, there were many misunderstandings and gaps between the people and the government. If the social education did not ask for help from the political power, it had no possibility to expand. Third, in the social mental aspect, many educational circles personages convinced the prejudice that education was only the school education. They didn’t support but even calumniated the social education. On one hand, some personnel of the social education looked down upon the common people. On the other hand, the common people hold much doubt for social education, they did not ask for education automatically. As a result, the social education was not to meet the demand of the common people but only to satisfy the full enthusiasm of the educators and the policy of the nation. Thus, teaching was active, but the common people who received education were very passive.The conclusion can be drawn like this: (1) The process from the subjects of a ruler to new people and citizens reflects the high level target of the republic social education.(2) Regarding People as the foundation of the nation was the central thought that was embedded in the social education .(3) The emphasis of the republic social education was to "saving the nation from extinction" instead of "people self-liberation".(4)The republic social education belongs to the reform, but it as well as the revolution equally promotes the society development as historic joint forces.