Container port developments
|School||Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences|
|Keywords||container port game theory logistics industry development|
As a special type of port, container port should have its unique rule of development apart from the general rule of port development.The development of container port has close relationship with social economy. First, container port is subordinate to social economy. The development degree of social economy determines the development degree of port. The development of container port depends on the increase in commodity trade and container freight demand resulted from the development of social economy. The economy scale, industry structure in the port hinterland and the connection between the port and its hinterland have important influence on the development of container port. Second, container port plays a leading role to social economy. Container port, as an import point in world logistics system, has strong industry gathering effect, which boosts the development of social economy, the adjustment and development of industry structure. So the governments of all countries, especially local governments attach much importance to the development of container port.The competition in the position as pivot port is becoming hot while the cooperation among container ports is deepening. The relationship between container port and the shipping companies is also becoming complicated. The direct market demand of container port comes from shipping companies. And the main service the container port provided is for shipping companies. In the system of container shipping, the shipping lines that the shipping companies have developed are the connection among the points of container ports. The density of shipping lines is an import fact that affects the competition of container port. It is shipping company that controls the shipping lines. And shipping companies have high concentration in market. So they are in an active position in the competition with container ports. That means shipping companies are very important in the development of modern container port. As a result, port is developing towards big scale and deep water, which is also the requirement of scale economic of the port itself.In modern logistics system, the competition of container port has changed from individual competition to the whole competition of logistics chain in which port is a part of it. The final market demand of container port is shipper. The standard that a shipper judges a port is total utility (TU) the shipper gains from the port logistics chain. TU is subject to logistics total cost (TC), logistics time(T) and logistics service (S). Shippers forward their demand to ports through shipping companies. So port operators focus their competition in TU.The development of container port depends not only on economic geographic location and natural conditions. The strategy of price (P),the strategy to improve service quality (S), the strategy to shorten the time that the ship berths at the port (T) and the development strategy (V) are very important in port competition. These strategies will finally affect shipper’s TU in port logistics activity. Shipping companies are also an important fact in the competition of container ports. This article aims to investigate and verify tendency and the rule of the development of world container ports by analyzing each factor that affects the development of container port and each subject action and their influence based on the real development examples of container port group in Pearl River Delta. The articles also studies the current development situation and problem of container ports in China and puts forward the development suggestion for container ports based on China industry development: a. development domestic trade business of container port; b. develop hinterland of port accordingly with the movement of industry to the west. There are some strategic suggestions on the problem and deficiency in the three main bodies in development process of China’s container ports.