Research on the Optimal Techniques of the Freeway Toll Collection System
|Course||Traffic Information Engineering \u0026 Control|
|Keywords||ITS networked toll collection ETC toll rate optimization double planning model vehicle identification toll discount rate|
Freeway is a natural product of the economic develop in a high degree. From middle of the 1980s, the china freeway construction has made rapid progress and unprecedented achievement. With the progress of technology, toll collection technology and facilities have developed continuously. It shows that China’s freeway toll collection system and application research has reached the advanced international level especially from the application of networked toll collection system and ETC system. This paper analyzed the status quo of freeway networked toll collection system and ETC system in China, and research on the optimization techniques of the two major toll collection systems.The networked toll collection system is an integrated management system using modern traffic control, information management theory, integrated computer network, information transmission, image processing, electronic measurement and control and so on. The system can collect and process the information about the traffic monitor, toll collection and communication of the expressway, control and issue the instructions in a certain range, and has the function of communicating with other related department to improve the modern management level of the expressway.Because the mutual influence of each road section, multi route in the network, toll rate in the road network to the profite and economics, how to decide the toll rate becomes an important and urgent problem.The entire toll collection road in Shandong province, including repayment charges highway of government and operating toll highway, the vehicle toll carries out the charging style based on the vehicle style and weight. The toll road installed the weight-calculating equipment charges the vehicle toll of the load trucks based on ton kilometer and charges the toll of passenger vehicles based on vehicle style.The expressway networked toll collection system in Shandong province adopts the weighted optimal route calculation method, which automatically creates the charge split table by the system, splits and calculates the toll under different toll rates and different management modes. When the expressway network increases road section, only the basic information about the new road section is needed to add, and then the new charge split table is calculated. The method is easy to carry out, but maybe makes the proportion of the vehicle types maladjustment because of the improper tall rate coefficient. So, the paper calculated the toll rates of single vehicle type and different types and their influences to the traffic flow, and compared the two conditions.The paper adopted the double planning model of toll rate optimization of different vehicle styles and GASA arithmetic and tested the model in the road network of Shandong networked toll collection system.Electronic toll collection system is an important part of ITS. a concentrated radio communications, computer networks and information management, automation in a number of high-tech road toll system in order to achieve comprehensive application of the new charges do not stop at fee system. The electronic toll system was installed in the front as the use of electronic access coupons labels, and it installed in the lanes of communication over a microwave transceiver communications, right-of-way certification, discriminant vehicle type, automatic accounting records tolls, no parking of vehicles, through direct high-speed, data charges by virtue of records, achieving no automatic toll collection.Traditional ETC system recognises vehicle identification only according to the IC (Integrated Circuit) card, which resulting in plenty of fraud and bad phenomenas such as inverted card, card replacements, toll collection vehicles using free card, large vehicles using the card of small vehicles. Some research institutions domectic and abroad have realized and studied this problem, and put forward a number of methods for the implementation. For example, making comparison between the data recorded in the IC card and the results of automatic number plate recognition technique or vehicle type recognition technique. But these methods can not solve the problem effectively and thoroughly because of the accuracy of automatic number plate recognition techniques can not reach the standad of application requirements and the result of vehicle type recognition technique is too simple. In an application, the model and algorithm of information fusion based on information game was applied to vehicle identification in electronic toll collection system in this paper. With the guidance of game theory, the players, st rategy, pay off were taken as the basic factors in this model. The target identification or situation estimate was taken as its kernel function. And the conflict and cooperation in the fusion were taken as mutual game of multi-source information with different strategies. Aimed at situation estimate or target identification in uncertain conditions, the expressions and solving methods of information game based on Bayesian networks were put forward. In an application, the test result indicated that information fusion based on information game was superior to the traditional information fusion, and could improve identification result remarkably.Nowadays, too much cost is one of the bottlenecks for widespread application of ETC. In order to optimize the use of toll lane, accelerate the promotion of ETC technology, many management departments offer a series of preferential policies to the ETC users. In order to establish proper toll discount rate and thus adopt and popularize the ETC technique reasonably, in this paper, the disaggregate method is applied to respectively analyze the relationships between the fare discount rate and the selection of ETC technologies, average delay of the system, as well as the ratio of cost increment to benefit increment. Based on the analyses, an optimized model of fare discount rate is proposed, which minimizes the average delay and the ratio of cost increment to benefit increment. Moreover, an optimization algorithm on the basis of golden section method is presented. Thus, the optimum discount rate in an ETC system with certain roadway configuration can be calculated.In addition, the paper also studied the combined networking electronic toll technique based on the actual situation of China. In the domestic interconnection charges and imbalance in regional economic development under the conditions of use of the technology vehicles on the highway toll collection can better meet the reality of our country, the effective charges cover a single technology drawbacks, to a large extent improve highway toll level of service. It can be foreseen that the technique will have even broader prospects with the networked toll collection system of each province gradually completed. All the optimization techniques which studied in this paper can be applied to the combined networking electronic toll system, making the system more security and reliable.