Dissertation
Dissertation > Medicine, health > Preventive Medicine,Health > Maternal and child health > Women 's health and hygiene

Correlation between Psychological Characteristics of the Pre-postnatal, Neurobiochemical Mechanism in Neonates and Domestic Violence and Impact of Gene-environment Interaction on Infants’ Cognitive-behavioral Development

Author ZhangYong
Tutor ZhangYaLin
School Central South University
Course Psychiatry and Mental Health
Keywords Domestic violence during pregnancy Social and psychological characteristics Postpartum depression Risk factors Newborn Glutamate r- aminobutyric acid Plasma cortisol COMT gene 5 -HT- gene Single nucleotide polymorphisms Temperament Intellectual and motor development index Genetic - environment interactions Neural network Mathematical model
CLC R173
Type PhD thesis
Year 2008
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ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy and postpartum depression and related psychosocial characteristics in order to find the risk factors of abused pregnant women and postpartum depression and provide with systematic prevention.Methods1. By using cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interview, 846 pregnant women were screened by Abuse Assessment Screen(AAS), and a sample of abused and control pregnant women was randomly selected for study and administered Self-designed demographic Questionnaire, Simpled Coping Style Questionnaire(TCSQ), Social Supporting Rating Scale(SSRS), Self-esteem Scale(SES), and Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire(EPQ), respectively.2. Study subjects were received follow-up visit after childbirth 30 to 42 days and administered in Edingburg Postnatal Depression Scale(EPDS), Self-rating Depression Scale(SDS). 3. The chi-square test was used to examine the differences between two groups on demographic variables. An analysis of multiple dependent variables was employed for multiple comparisons between groups on continuous variables by performing multiple F/t/z tests. Spearman correlation and Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine risk factors. All analyses were performed using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 13.0 for Windows. All statistical significance was set at p< .05.Results1. The overall prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy was 11.3% , the most common form of DV was both psychological abuse(7.0%) and psychological combined sexual abuse(3.9%), and the less was combined three forms abuse(0.5%). there was significant difference in husband employment and family income level between two groups.2. There were more frequent smoking, alcohol drinking(including past 1 year), gambing from husbands and smoking and alcohol drinking past 1 year from pregnant women in DV group than in control group, and more obvious unexpected pregnancy, abortion experience and worrying about fetus gender.3. The attitude of DV acceptance, witness to DV and abuse in childhood were much more in DV group than in control one.4. Compared to control group, there were lower levels of general social support, self-esteem and EPQ-E, but higher levels of negative coping style and EPQ-N in DV group.5. There were lower levels of positive coping style, objective social support in psychological combined sexual abuse group than in only psychological abuse group, there were higher levels of objective social support and general social support, but lower levels of negative coping style in less 3 abortion than above 3 abortion experience.6. The correlation and binary Logistic regression analysis showed that better family status, unexpeted pregnancy, abortion, attitude of DV acceptance, witness to DV and poor subjective social support may predict DV in pregnancy.7. Follow-up interview showed the overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 31.2%, there were higher levels of EPDS and SDS in DV group than in no-DV group; Binary Logistic Regression analysis showed that husband employment, abortion, alcohol drinking of the couple, attitude of DV acceptance, psychological abuse in pregnancy, worrying about fetus health, negative coping style and EPQ-N may be predictive factors of postpartum depression. Conclusions1. The overall prevalence of DV in pregnancy was 11.3%, psychological abuse was most common.2. Better family status, unexpected pregnancy, abortion, attitude of DV acceptance, witness to DV and poor subjective social support may be the risk factors of DV in pregnancy.3. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 31.2%, husband employment, abortion, alcohol drinking of the couple, attitude of DV acceptance, psychological abuse in pregnancy, worrying about fetus health, negative coping style and EPQ-N may be the risk factors of postpartum depression. ObjectiveTo explore impact of domestic violence in pregnancy on Glutamate、r-aminobutyric acid and plasma Cortisol levels in neonates, and to find the correlation between rs4680, rs4818, rs6313SNP in neonates and domestic violence in pregnancy in order to formulate possible neurobiochemical and genetic mechanisms.Methods1. By cross-sectional survey, The neonates were divided from DV and no-DV group in accord with their mothers. Accumulations of Glu、GABA in plasma were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection(HPLC-ECD)on samples, levels of plasma Cortisol were detecteded by immunoradiometric assay.2. Genetypes and Allels of rs4680SNP, rs4818SNP and rs6313SNP were assayed by ligase detection reaction(LDR) and DNA sequencing, we observed frequency difference of genetype and allel between two groups.3. The Chi-square test was used to examine the frequency difference of genetype and allel between two groups. Phenotype difference in DV group were tested by performing multiple F tests. spearman’s correlations was performed to determine related factors. All analyses were performed using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS), Version 13.0 for Windows. All statistical significance was set at p < .05.Results1. By comparision, our study reported that higher levels of Glu、GABA and plasma Cortisol in DV neonates than no-DV controls; there were higher levels of Cortisol in neonates whose mothers abused psychologically above 5 than less 5, and higher levels of Cortisol in neonates whose mother abused psychologically with sexually than only psychologically; Spearman correlation analysis showed significantly positive correlation between severity of psychological abuse and sexual abuse and levels of Glu、GABA and Cortisol, meanwhile, our study showed that positive correlation between EPQ-P of pregnant women and levels of Glu, GABA, and negative correlation between SDS of mother and levels of Cortisol, our study also showed that positive correlation between abuse experience in childhood of pregnant women and levels of Glu, GABA.2. We found significant difference of rs4818SNP genetype and allel between DV neonates and no-DV neonates, there were higher ratio of CC genetype and C allel, but lower ratio of GG genetype and G allel in DV neonates than in no-DV neonates, ratio of haplotype A-G of rs4680-rs4818SNP was higher in DV neonates than in no-DV neonates (P<0.01) ,odd ratio was 2.756, 95%confidence interval was between 1.286 to 5.903. we did not find difference of rs4680SNP and rs6313SNP genetype and allel between two groups; association analysis showed that levels of GABA with GG carrier were lower than that of GABA with CC and C/G carrier of rs4818SNP genetype, but showed no correlation between rs4680SNP, rs6313SNP and phenotypes.Conclusions1. Domestic violence in pregnancy may influence plasma amino acid and cortisol in neonates.2. Domestic violence in pregnancy may associate with rs4818SNP, haplotype A-G of rs4680-rs4818 possibly increased risk of violence behavior in offsprings, and rs4818SNP may lead to vary GABA level. ObjectiveBy constructing multiple linear regression model under perceptron neural network, to explore the impact of gene-environment interaction on infants’ cognitive-behavioral development.Methods1. By using prospective study, we finished a follow-up to infants within near 1 year. We evaluated temperament and mental and motor development of infants.2. We constructed multiple linear regression model under perceptron neural network in order to explore the impact of gene-environment interaction on infants’ cognitive-behavioral development.3. An analysis of all temperament dimensions and MDI, PDI variables was employed for comparison between groups by performing t tests, an association analysis of all phenotypes and genetypes in DV group was tested by performing multiple F tests. Spearman’s correlations was performed to determine related factors. we constructed biomathematic model by using Matlab5.1 neural network toolbox. All statistical significance was set at p < .05. Results1. There were higher levels of rhythmicity, emotion, attention, but lower levels of MDI and PDI in DV infants tnan in no-DV infants (p <0.01, p<0.05) .2. Correlation analysis showed significantly positive correlation between rhythmicity and PDI, negative correlation between phobotaxi and levels of GABA, and negative correlation between emotion and MDI, PDI, unexpected pregnancy, but positive correlation with severity of psychological abuse in pregnancy, there was negative correlation between PDI and attention, but positive correlation with subjective perceived support in pregnancy (p <0.01, p <0.05) .3. Association analysis showed that levels of phobotaxi with AA carrier were higher than that of phobotaxi with A/G and GG carrier of rs4680SNP genetype, levels of MDI with CC carrier were lower than that of MDI with C/G and GG carrier of rs4818SNP genetype, levels of attention with C/T and TT carrier were higher than that of attention with CC carrier of rs6313SNP genetype.4. Multiple linear regression model under neural network perceptron showed that gene-environment interaction may influence emotion, PDI and MDI.Conclusions1. Infants whose mothers abused in pregnancy showed poor rhythmicity, negative emotion, no persistent attention, and delayed mental and motor development.2. COMT and 5-HT gene polymorphism may be associated with some phenotype ,such as rhythmicity, phobotaxi, attention as well as mental, motor development.3. Gene-environment interaction may play an important role in infants’ cognitive-behavioral development.

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