Comparative Study of Constitution Theory of TCM constitution academic development history of Chinese and Western Medicine
|School||Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine|
|Course||Basic Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine|
|Keywords||Constitution of TCM the Academic Development History Comparison of Chinese and Western Medicines Physical Constitution Theory|
Constitutional Doctrine of TCM considers human constitution refers the relatively stable characteristics in human morphological structure, physiological functions and psychology formed during the growth ,development and ageing due to the congenital inheritance and the influences of various postnatal factors,and these characteristics usually determine the susceptibility of the organism to certain pathogenic factors and the tendency of pathological changes.The studying on the constitution of TCM has a history of more than 2,000 years.However, nobody has explored their academic evolution course and the rules up to now. In the first part of this dissertation, firstly, the TCM Constitution academic evolution course based on the definite historical division principles was divided into six periods impersonally. Secondly, many relevant doctors and medical works were researched systematically regarding inheritance and innovation of the academic thought of TCM Constitution as axis.Concrete stages are as follows:From the Pre-Qin Times to the Western Han Dynasty Dynasty was important period that the theories of Constitution in TCM generated initially. In this stage , Huang Di Nei Jing was the representative medicine works . There were plenty of theories of Constitution in TCM in Huang Di Nei Jing,such as human constitution characteristics, formation of body constitution, constitution change, constitution types, correlation between constitution and susceptibility to disease, significance of constitution in diagnosis, influence of constitution on treatment of illness, relationship between constitution and health preservation,and so on.All of these were the first illustration about phenomenon of constitution,and they laid all initial foundation for the Constitutional Doctrine of TCM.East-HanDynasty is the period of clinical use of theories of Constitution in TCM initiated. In this stage , Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases was the representative medicine works . This book was divided into Treatise on Febrile Diseases and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber in the later process of spread. In Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases ,the theories of Constitution in TCM were applied to the each link of TCM clinical practice, the academic thoughts, such as the relationship between constitution and pathogenesis, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment and so on,were deepened.From Three Kingdoms Period to the Two Song Dynasties is the period of the theories of Constitution in TCM accumulaed further .There were formulation for pulse of different constitutional state in Wang Shuhe’s Maijing. There were formulation for special diathesis constitutional type in Chao Yuanfang’s Zhubingyuanhoulun. Sun Si Miao had excellent achievement to study on constitution and dietetic life-nourishing.Qianyi and Chenzhi discussed constitution characteristics of the old people and the children.The studying on the TCM Constitution achieved new breakthrough in Jin and Yuan Dynasties. Four Eminent Physicians in the Jin and Yuan Dynasties proposed respectively new theories of Constitution in TCM. Liuwansus Treating Disease from the Root was actual the thought of constitution-oriented in treatment.Zhangcongzheng brought forward the viewpoint of emphasis on dietetic life-nourishing. Lidongyuan presented asthenia of the spleen-stomach was important cause for formation of Qi-deficiency constitutional type. Zhudanxi put forward practical approach for how to adjust Yin-deficiency constitutional type.In the Ming and Qing Dynasties,clinical application of Constitutional Theory in TCM was becoming mature. Doctors paid more attention to study the relationship between constitution and pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation , treatment and medication. They also brought forward some Clinical pathological constitutional classification.In a word,in this stage, the studying on the TCM Constitution had more rapid progress,and its clinical application was more extensive.However, the Constitutional Theory in Traditional Chinese Medicin formed academic system yet.From the late 1970 s to now, the academic development of the studying on TCM constitutional doctrine opened a new chapter,and a series of major achievements have been made as large numbers of researchers’s efforts continued 30 years Wang Qi as representative. The publishing.of TCM Constitutional Doctrine in 1982 was the mark of the formation of the the TCM constitutional doctrine from dispersive theories. The publishing of TCM Constitution Theory in 1995 was the mark of preliminary construction of the the TCM constitutional doctrine academic system,and TCM Constitution Theory became a special subdiscipline. Basic Research on TCM Constitution Theory Based on Thought About Treatment According To Different Constitution of People was selected into the National Science and Technology Planning Project in 2005, which was the mark of the studying on the TCM Constitution obtaining a popular appreciation and identity of scientific academia. The studying on TCM Constitution Theory could produce significant and sustained impact on the clinical application of TCM, health preserving, and preventive and rehabilitation medicine.Under different historical and cultural background two important medical system of the East and the West have Produced ,developed, and formed different academic thoughts, contents and style. Understanding the difference between the two medical system have important realistic meanings to the development of TCM.Individual difference and the different constitution status in crowd are complex biological phenomena, and are paid more attention by the global medicine circle for a long time. since ancient times, the Chinese and Western scholars proposes many different understanding about the human physique question .Many thoughts and theories still have important and profound guiding sense to the medical practice until now. The second part of this dissertation is contrastive study on the similarities and differences in academic thoughts about human constitution between the TCM and western medicine ,expecting to benefit to human medicine study, progress and intercommunion between the TCM and western medicine.By comparing the constitution theories in Huang Di Nei Jing and Hippcratic Corpus ,and contrastive studying on the similarities and differences in academic thoughts about human constitution between the TCM Constitution Theory and western medicine in modern times, our basic conclusions are as follows: The academic thoughts about human constitution in TCM are very great difference from those in western medicine. There are different research purpose , research thoughts and methods on the individual difference phenomenon between the western scholars and TCM scholars. Western scholars’ study on the individual difference phenomenon focused on individual’s behavioral expression and psychological activity features.However, Constitutional Doctrine of TCM considers human constitution holistically as the relatively stable characteristics in human morphological structure, physiological functions and psychology.Therefore,the constitution Theory in western medicine is still limited to psychology only, and so can not instruct the clinic directly. On the contrary, TCM Constitution Theory has formed comparativel complete theoretical system,and has been applied widely to TCM clinical treatment and people’s daily health preserving.