The Critical Analysis of Conscious Structure
|Keywords||premise critique conscious reference conscious structure steps of including and controlling|
People can know by consciousness, or to say, only by consciousness that includes knowledge of object and ego, and take action together. Consciousness is the important basis of human theory and practice, and is the window of self-understanding. Further, the principle of real life by human beings - whether it be to nature or to oneself, it is first of all the principle of social life - should be designed according to the essence of human existence and subject to the human essence. However, the consciousness of contemporary philosophy, the popularity of post-modernism in particular, shows that the conflict between rationalism and irrationalism as well as the different beliefs towards the human existence are still entangled, and that we have a long way to go in understanding and mastering human consciousness that cannot meet the needs of theory and practice. So, the wisdom of "knowing yourself by Socrates must be mentioned again, and through the rational analysis of consciousness with which human beings are born, this inane edification is made into the true feeling of human beings about themselves, and thus change into the lively life and spirit internally. This thesis is intended to reveal the real structure of consciousness, which will lay solid foundation for further and rational understanding of consciousness and have philosophy make contributions to human happiness.This thesis is divided into four chapters. In the first chapter, the currently existing problems of philosophy are expounded in the critique of post-modernist philosophy, namely, the confirmation of cognition should be restored. By acknowledgement between prior cognition and universal understanding, the critical tasks of consciousness are put forward, and then contributions and shortcomings from main philosophy of consciousness are analyzed in the history of philosophy. Western philosophers have done much research of consciousness, and especially in modern times western philosophy involves in consciousness in the category of epistemology in different levels and depths, and puts forward the theoretical achievements that can be used for reference from different aspects, but the shortcomings had by most of them lie in the starting of conscious function or action without hitting the mark of consciousness itself, so inner analysis of consciousness is lacked. However, the inner structure and existing way of consciousness are the basis of doing research of consciousness in logic. If this problem cannot be solved, it’s impossible to have credible and complete judgment. In the history of philosophy, Husserl is the first to hit the mark in the studies on the consciousness and tries to construct the prior structure of consciousness itself so as to reveal its form of essence, but influenced by scientific method, he seeks a prior ego by choosing such a method of depicting facts of consciousness in a special way, which makes him into the logic paradox that he cannot deduct the universal from the particular, so a new approach of conscious research must be sought. In the analysis, the incomplete nature and even nature of non-critique are strongly pointed out and the highest position of conscious critique and relative ration are affirmed in logic. In this chapter, the analysis and critique of Husserl is important and strong. On the basis of confirming his philosophical intention, the reconstructing method of phenomenology is planned and the possibility of deduction is established.In Chapter Two, the possibility and the usual road of consciousness are further analyzed and carried out. On the basis of self-reflection of defining the critical spirit of consciousness, its characteristics are as follows: self-understanding structure in the studies on consciousness, kicking out special contents and preconceived contents in the critical critique to ensure that cognition must be limited in the consciousness itself, direct observation of equivalence in logic sense, description in the course of reflection, universal form as reflection boundary, the "reverse" of narrative structure caused by non-prerequisite, namely, "unconscious" analysis of facts before concepts, and purely logic analysis in concept. In this chapter, the methods of philosophical studies on consciousness are expounded as keystones, which are as follows: Consciousness cannot be seen, but as long as the being of consciousness cannot be denied, and consciousness can be restored into the outer action, which cannot be studied as an outer being. We realize the being of consciousness in our thoughts, that’s to say, consciousness has pure nature of thoughts. If consciousness is mastered directly, the pure nature of thoughts must be kept in the research object that is the expression of thoughts. In addition, studies on thoughts whose anticipated effectiveness should be the whole of thoughts, so researches should be universal and effective. To achieve this goal, the existing form of consciousness must be targeted. The thoughts and universality determine the speculative nature. Through the reflection and design of this method, the logic analysis and proposition of consciousness from Chapter One have got a further depth. In addition, what is more important is that, aiming at the paradox structure of self-understanding oppugned by Augustine and putting the existing structure analysis of problem consciousness and content analysis of self-consciousness, solving methods are concretely come up with so that rationality of conscious studies is supported under the condition of self-reflection, and in the meantime self-understanding without circulating structure has been pointed out.The central task of Chapter Three is to solve the problem of the universal reference of consciousness. To carry out the critical principle of complete prerequisite, what is to take is not the acknowledgement of consciousness in advance, but seeking for it. The concrete stages are to start from "things’ being" of abstract affirmation to analyze the significance of "existence" concept in which consciousness is sought for further in the possible extension, for such things as "consciousness" must be controlled by concept if it exists. In this analysis, the universal existence of consciousness will be discovered. Along the characteristics of conscious being from the universal reference of consciousness, studies on consciousness are further determined as relationship between contents and establishment of consciousness. With the increasing understanding of conscious being, method of conscious critique will be further deepened.This thesis has uniqueness in research method. First of all, the prerequisite of complete critique is carried out, with which the starting of consciousness is innovatively chosen, and the concrete regulations of critical methods of consciousness are increased with the constant appearances of the universal properties of conscious being. The most important achievement in methodology is that deduction method is changed into the passage of free appearances of the existing form of pure consciousness in the logic localization of "non-prerequisite", which in the meantime has the function of essence and direct observation of phenomenology that Husserl aspires, depending on the closing force of deduction method limits the non-regulations of thinking contents, thus naturally forcing consciousness to express its universal being truly. It is successful for it to avoid the logic openness of object of direct observation that Husserl faces, making a complete understanding of consciousness possible in logic. On such judgment basis of the unique usage of method, namely, in the condition of spurning the content of special existence, consciousness as thinker with self-understanding, must be deducted and pushed to realize self-examination, which has become a kind of logic without psychological elements.In Chapter Four, the existing structure of consciousness is discussed. In the course of "discovering" consciousness, the existing form of consciousness is decided in the meantime, which is the absolute regulation or to say appearance, namely, the contents of some kind of consciousness must be given and appear, what’s more, the special existence is regulated by one kind of content, making it oneness, on the basis of which such existing structure of consciousness is depicted in a further logic analysis: one kind of content contains three kinds of contents that have mutual regulations (first including and controlling), and in this structure the three contained contents may - not must -contain another three kinds of contents (second including and controlling), but the three contained groups have no mutual regulations. The consciousness like such existence, due to different functions in the contents of consciousness, has various states with some inevitability and chanciness. Because of different significances of inevitability and chanciness in logic, consciousness produces internally two regulations of universality and particularity, and differentiation of internal existence. In such existing form of consciousness, comprehensiveness and unification are contained internally. In another perspective, between the contents without comprehensiveness and unification the existence of consciousness can’t be constructed and shown.The logic analysis and description of the existing structure of consciousness make up the center of philosophical innovation in this thesis, which is outspread and acquired in the guaranteed method of complete pre-critique, thus having logic effectiveness and scientific nature. To have conscious critique filled with completeness is the cognitive goal that this thesis keeps. The rigid method of deduction in the course of understanding guarantees the continuity of revealing the existing structure of consciousness, about which some fine knowledge is obtained. This fineness is not more or less of cognition in a usual sense but the starting point of cognition which must be depended on and the penetrating force of cognition of internal method. It is by virtue of unique method of understanding that the above-mentioned existing structure of consciousness can be discovered.This analysis result from the existing structure of consciousness has important value in the epistemology, which makes the comprehensiveness of spirit or unification having been enacted in the history of philosophy have rational explanation and demonstration, thus revealing the evidence and secret of the existence of conscious comprehensiveness and unification. Comprehensiveness and unification have been regarded as the highest principle of spirit. The comprehensiveness and unification of the existing structure of consciousness make this highest principle become theorem instead of public principle, and make every latter judgment of rationality become science.