A Study on Yingzhou in Tang Dynasty
|Keywords||Old Tang Dudu New Book of Tang Jiedushi Education Press University Press Zhonghua Geography Khitan Northeast Frontier|
Yingzhou was the only inland-state and the pivotal bulwark in the northeast area of Tang Empire. In this paper, we discussed the local setup, nationalities and population, government offices and officers, the functions, and to probe into the important station and operation. There were five chapters in this paper except the preface and the conclusion.In the preface we discussed why to choose the subject, defined the period and space of the subject. Then we reviewed the former researches on this title in both China and overseas, summed up the questions, and clarified that how to do the research in this paper.In chapter I, we discussed the local setup, nationalities and population. Firstly we reviewed the regionalism evolution before Tang dynasty and discussed the historical origin. Then reviewed the setup and changes in Yingzhou of Tang dynasty, discussed the nationalities distributing in Yingzhou, and saw about the nationalities composing in Yingzhou dynamically. The Jimizhous set up in the submitted nationalities named Chengpang Jimizhou, the numbers of Chengpang Jimizhous reached to seventeen in the eve of Khitan rebellion in 696. The being of many Chengpang Jimizhous were just the portraiture of nationalities living together, the minorities were the main body in Yingzhou. Lastly discussed the Jimifuzhous and population in watching and controlling areas of Yingzhou. There were the Han’s Zhengzhou as same as the inland, as well as the Chengpang Jimizhous set up in the submitted minorities, and the Jimifuzhous in the minorities lived in primary areas besides.In chapter II, we discussed the different government offices in Yingzhou. Tang Empire had set up Yingzhou Zongguanfu、Yingzhou Dudufu, and Pinglu Jiedushifu successively. The managed system changed from the unitary administrant of Yingzhou Zongguanfu and Yingzhou Dudufu, the dualistic administrant of Yingzhou Dudufu and Pinglu Jiedushifu, to the unitary administrant of Pinglu Jiedushifu.Yingzhou Zongguanfu was set up in 618, most of the four Yingzhou managers active submitted and they hold the post in one to two years. Yingzhou Dudufu was renamed by Yingzhou Zongguanfu in 624, and its level changed from the middle Dudufu、the superior Dudufu to the lower Dudufu. Yingzhou Dudufu and Yingzhou state office shared the same officers. In the twenty-four Yingzhou Dudus there were three types: the virtual、the reputed and the presented among the Yingzhou Dudus; most of the Yingzhou Dudus were the military officers, and there were also the northeast minorities; thirteen years were the longest terms and several months were the shortest, it was familiar from two yeas to five yeas; the passes of holding the Dudu were battle achievement、governing border very well、rebuilding Yingzhou and knowing well border, and so on; Yingzhou Dudu hold the concurrent post by Yingzhou Cishi、Dongyi Xiaowei、Pinglu Junshi、Pinglu Jiedushi etc. Moreover Dongyi Xiaoweifu was set up before 630 in Yingzhou, Dongyi Xiaowei hold the concurrent post by Yingzhou Dudu, Dongyi Xiaowei was upgraded to Dongyi Duhu in 648, and took charge of Songmo Dudufu of Khitan and Raole Dudufu of Xi. Gaoli regime was ruined in 668, Tang empire had set up Andong Duhufu in the areas, and Dongyi Duhufu was withdrew, which functions were carried out by Yingzhou Dudu.Pinglu Jiedushifu was set up in 719, which was upgraded from Pinglu Junshi in 717. Pinglu Jiedushifu formally replaced Yingzhou Dudufu and became the most high-class organization in 741. Most of the Pinglu Jiedushis were the Hans, and some were minorities; most of whom were military officers, also had civilians, and the imperial clan. Mostly Pinglu Jiedushis were elevated in the Yingzhou magistrates or army officers; some of Pinglu Jiedushis were appointed by the court, some of them were appointed by An lu-shan, or chosed by officers and soldiers and then appointed by the court; the term changed from basic stabilization、occupied by only one man to replacing frequent frequently, fourteen years were the longest terms and several months were the shortest; Pinglu Jiedushis were ever hold the position by Yingzhou Dudu、Liuchengjun Taishou、Yingzhou Cishi; .and it had the closely relation with Youzhou (Fanyang) Jiedushi, both of them were sometimes pluralism, sometimes separate; most of Pinglu Jiedushis hold the concurrent post by Zhidushi、Yingtianshi、Yunshi、or Yushi Zhongcheng(Dafu). Moreover they hold the concurrent post by Yafanshi. Yafanshi in northeast was set up in 716, which was the requirement and result of strengthening martial governing of Tang empire in northeast areas, and which exerted important function in the change of Yingzhou government office from Yingzhou Dudufu to Pinglu Jiedushifu. During the period from 716 to 722 Yafanshi saw to manage and control the minorities in order to ensure the stabilization of northeast borders as an official post under Yingzhou Dudu and Pinglu Jiedushi. In 722 there was the phenomenon that Yafanshi was plurality by Pinglu Jiedushi, which became the system until to 740.The official post in Chengpang Jimizhous and Watching and Controlling Areas Jimifuzhous of Yingzhou carried out hereditary of minorities header, at the same time Tang empire appointted Hans and other nationalities to hold a post in Jimifuzhous.In chapter III, we discussed the administrative and economic functions the Yingzhou government managing and controlling northeast borders. The administrative functions were selecting and examing officers、managing tribute-paying which were to inspect the identities of Jimifuzhous minorities and the tributes, the reception、checking and ratifying and return of paying tribute persons, and participating in the management of Watching and Controlling Areas Jimifuzhous which were to visit the Jimifuzhous, appease and relieve Jimifuzhous, build and maintain the political government order in northeast borders. The economic functions were to collect the taxes and local tributes、deal in station-fields and running trade. The station-fields could settle the food supplies of mostly garrison in Yingzhou, Chengpang Jimizhous paied less taxes.In chapter IV, we discussed the martial functions that Yingzhou managed and controlled northeast borders. There were many military setups in Yingzhou: three Zhengzhou zhechongfus which were Liaoxifu Pingliaofu and Huaiyuanfu, two Chengpang Jimizhou zhechongfus which were Daifangfu and Changlifu, four armies which were Pinglu army Lulong army Huaiyuan army and Baoding army, six Shouzhuos which were Ruluo (Andong) Yanjun Huaiyuan Wulv Xiangping and Yuguan, six Zhens which were Yangshi Sanhe Luhe Huaiyuan Pingliao and Tongding, four shus which were Jingfan Wuliu Hazhuan and Linquan. The Zhechongfus Zhens and Shus were commanded by Yingzhou Dudufu and the armies and Shouzhuos were commended by Pinglu Jiedushi. There were many nationalities in Yingzhou officers and soldiers. There were armies in the Jimifuzhous of northeast borders, Songmo Dududfu had Jingxi army, Raole Dudufu had Baosai army and Heishui Dudufu had Heishui army. Yingzhou officers had the conscription functions in Zhengzhou and Chengpang Jimizhous, the soldiers of zhengzhou and Chengpang Jimizhous in Yingzhou lived in Yingzhou, whose responsibilities were to guard regions and borders in order to keep away minorities such as Khtian and Xi. There were many differentness in the soldiers of Zhengzhou and Chengpang Jimizhous Zhechongfus such as service, command and recruiting etc.Yingzhou officers also had the calling up function in Jimifuzhous. But different from Chengpang Jimizhous which commonly were commended by Yingzhou officers and deferred manoeuvre to take part in the pacification rebellion, Watching and Controlling Areas Jimifuzhous were mainly commended by imperial’s letters or emissary and the centre couldn’t manoeuvre Watching and Controlling Areas Jimifuzhous’troops in a hurry. Yingzhou officers had the martial function of commending the military force to safeguarding the tranquilization of northeast borders, and obeying the mobilization to participate in centrality warfare of putting down the rebellion such as going on a punitive expedition to Gaogouli, Turki and Xueyantuo, putting down the rebellion of Khitan and Xi, and taking part in the pacification rebellion.In chapter V, we discussed the station and function of Yingzhou in Tang dynasty from three aspects which were to safeguard the tranquilization of northeast borders, safeguard the safety of north areas, and in the traffic of northeast Asia areas. Yingzhou had an important station and exerting an important function in safeguarding the tranquilization of northeast borders, which manifested on sticking up for the liege relationship between Tang empire and northeast borders, implementing Tang empire’s administrative management in northeast borders, keeping away and putting down northeast borders’rebellions and developing northeast borders’economy. The station and function of Yingzhou’s safeguarding the safety of north areas manifested on Yingzhou’s safeguarding borders before An-shin rebellion, the important station and function during An-shi rebellion, and Tang empire’s government to northeast borders became gradually enervation after Pinglu Jiedushi’s moving southward. Furthermore Yingzhou was the traffic hinge between northeast minorities and central plains, was the tache and transfer station of north grassland Silk Road, and also was the bridge of connecting intercourse between Tang empire and northeast Asia countries.In the conclusion, on the base of concrete research we discussed the power’s change from the height to weaker, again height, until to come down, and reappeared the Yingzhou’s important station and function in the system operation of Tang empire’s governing northeast borders and Tang empire’s integer frontier defence system.