Russia Governmental Agencies and Official System (from the 19th Century to the Beginning of the 20th Century)
|Keywords||Russia governmental agencies country official Ministry system|
For researching history, the politics history is one of the most important aspact.For our country’s world history discipline, the study to the history of Russia Empire period is a little weak, and to the politics history of Russia Empire period is much weaker. From the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century which is a crucial time for the modernization of Russia politics system , country that the Russia regime modernizes have come true from the tradition administrative organization to the change drawing west experience , building the administration system on rationalism basis. With the fact that the country manages machine-made rationalization, country official system gradually tends to be perfect , the basic having established official system ultimately runs principle , founds up one package system such as the sum social security choosing , being promoted , management , cultivating , supervising etc. for country official. The research to historical experience, quomodo and method of supervising a country, as well as the status and effect of the managers themselves about each seedtime of Russia in the 19th can help us understand the Russian modernization advancement more profoundly. But extremely regret is that in our historiography domain none of the interrelated research referring to Russia state institution and the official is all-around or systematically as yet. This article is with this theme being researchful object, hoped can take benefit in this aspect preliminary study to the educational world in this aspect thorough discussion so that others may offer their valuable ideas.About this article main text is divided into two sections. In the first section it construes the premises condition, process and influence of Russian successively significant administrative reform from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century along with the evolution history of all levels of state institution(the highest, central committee and place organization, as well as some special organizations) in the organizational structure, the jurisdiction function and the official document system aspect. It also elaborated in each time the czar and official’s essential feature from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. The second part analyzes the stipulation and the measure about the Russian government’s selecting, appointment, promotion, reward and punishment in the official as well as the surveillance, the management, the raise system and the social security measure and so on about the country to the official form the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century.The previous is divided into four chapters: the first chapter, in Alexander I Times reformation about the supervise systems of the country----the key step of politics system modernization of the country; the second chapter, Nicolas I rule time----the crest of centralization before reform; the third chapter, the national system after reform (19th century 60-90 age); the fourth chapter, at the beginning of the 20th century national systems. Each chapter of the cardinal mainly elaborates the content as below: common characteristic Czar and the bureaucrat’s common characteristic; the organizational structures, jurisdiction function and official document system of the highest, central committee and place organization, as well as some special organizations.In majority times of the Russian history, the society progresses mainly present the extraneous source development pattern, which its own development and the adjustment power is insufficient, the political main body is playing the leading role in the development, and the Czar and its peripheral bureaucrat have a significant influence to the national reform and policy. The Czar, the carrier of the highest authority, is the core of the national politics system, and the national politics modernization advancement is decided in the very great degree by czar’s individual quality. Looks over for 19th century to the beginning of 20th century Russia’s five czars, none of whom had the quality of a great reformer. Alexander I although has the liberalism thought and the firm determination of reform, as a result of the influence of his growth environment , individuality quality and so on, he has not been able to persist own ideal. AlexanderⅡand NicolasⅡhave also carried on the reform to the country, but it is forced in the objective situation passively to carry on instead of stemming from their subjective wish by no means under, which its own characteristic decided that the reform inevitably does not have the degree of thoroughness, the limitation and the repeatability. Nicolas I and AlexanderⅢhowever guard the despotic system firmly and implement conservative rule roundly. Especially AlexanderⅢwho has implemented a series of counter-reform measure has obliterated his father’s reform achievement.From the beginning of 19th century, the national bureaucrat gradually becomes the main body of the country’s management. But at the Alexander I time the aristocrat’s influence was also extremely significant and the Czar who still depended on aristocrat’s support didn’t dare to touch aristocrat’s benefit excessively. At the Nicolas I time, the Czar gradually got rid of the dependence to aristocrat and the authority of fathering country is mastered by the official who comply with the Czar’s will. The Russian officials operation machine-made inefficiency, the implementation of rank qualification limit, the stark official rank promotion system, the slow longitudinal flow rate, the prevalent nepotism, the complex nationality constituted and so on, all the factors as above have affected the national official’s efficiency. Only at the early time of AlexanderⅡruling, one group of enlightened liberalism bureaucrat formed, who become the main body of the reformation at the 16th century 60-70 age. This new generation of bureaucrat, with the Czar’s support, has overcome the conservative’s opposition, which has guaranteed each reformation carrying on at 60-70 age. At other times of Russian history from 19th century to the beginning of 20th century, all the official are some mediocre generation except the minority exception, so the working efficiency isn’t high in the whole. The official’s low quality becomes one of main reasons for which the Russian empire overturns.At the beginning of the 19th century, state institution reformation during Alexander I rule time is a key step for Russian politics system modernization aspect. At the beginning of Alexander I being in power has namely carried on the reformation to the highest and the central state institution, at the same time has drawn up some extremely radical country reformation plan, such as establishing constitutionalism principle, the legal supreme principle, cancelling the serf system gradually and so on, which most have only realized a very small part, affected limitedly. But state institution reformation was actually signality. Alexander I, depending upon“the youth friend”knowing during his crown prince period discussed initial state reformation plan, established a system in 1982, founded the minister committee as the highest organization to coordinate each motion. During 1810 to 1811, he has carried on the reform to the state institution once more , established the state conference as the highest law discussing organization in 1810 and promulgated a total rule which has confirmed the basic structure and the work routine in 1811. During 1810 to 1811, the reform designer is Speransky, who take these reformations as one part of a huge reform plan at first. But since his whole reform plan has not been able to realize, the state institution he designed and established has not got the efficiency as it’s planed. The state institution reform at the beginning of the 19th century, through which the Russian empire has formed structure orderly highest, central and local organization system, has been continuously deciding the basic appearance and the characteristic of the Russian state system during the following many years.At the beginning of 19th century after the state institution reformation, the Russian highest state institution included the highest lawmaking body—divan, the highest implementing agency—minister committee, the highest judicature supervise agency—government participating courtyard. But this kind of division is only relative and at the Russia Empire time there is not strict division of legislation, administrative and judicial organization yet.In 1811《Total Rule》promulgating symbolized the accomplishment of system reformation since 1802. In 1802, there are eight offices (internal affairs, police, judicature, finance, people educating, army, navy and ministry of foreign affairs) and three central administration offices (foreign country religious belief, national accountant supervised management, and traffic control bureau) set up. Since then until the beginning of 20th century, there are only some non-principled change, such as the police department has been cancelled in 1819, the national resource department has been established in 1837, in 1836 the national accountant supervised administration office has been changed into the national supervise bureau and so on. Russian system that is established imitating the western pattern implements one officer principle. But compares with the west, Russian management structure has some flaws. First, the western nation has the people’s representative organization and the minister is responsible for the people’s organization which may prevent minister acts arbitrarily. However, Russia has not been able to set up the people’s representative organization before 1905, Russian minister directly is responsible to the Czar, from which it formed significant malpractice of the Russian state control system—lack of surveillance to the minister’s authority. Next, in the Western Europe country, that cabinet taking premier minister as the head coordinates each office’s motion exists. The cabinet that is production of the parliamentary takes the stable constitution as the foundation. Russia established minister committee as the organization to coordinate each office’s motion although, but Russian minister voluntarily appointed, dismissed and supervised by the Czar and they have authorized to directly make individual report to the Czar, then they possibly suggested the Czar to authorize own plan and even obtain the Czar’s imperial signature, therefore the minister committee was unable taking the function of harmonizing each office’s motion like the western cabinet. From what is said above it formed another significant malpractice about Russian state supervise system, which is the lack of coordination between minister’s motion and the serious department separatism.In the first halves of 19th century, Russia local organization basically retained the system that was established in the local reformation during 1775 to 1785 at Ye KwajaleinⅡtime.. At the beginning of 19th the system established promoted the formation of the Russia department manage system. In the 18th century, the Russia central committee and the local organization adopted the radiated hierarchical system and the governor and the military administration subordinates the different committee in the different question. After the establishment of department system, the central and local institution turns to the vertical hierarchical system and all the local institution, officials (besides garrison commander and governor) subordinates to a fixed department and formed the department supervise system. The central committee and local organization of each department forms a unified department that plan as a whole and manage at these aspects as administration, human affairs and financial.In the reform happened in 19th century 60-70 age, the local supervise system has had a tremendous change that there are a batch of new courts and the local and city autonomous bodies appeared, but the highest and the central organization system have not obvious change. After the reform in 1905, the Russia state system has had a tremendous change, a highest legislature—national Duma, which implements electoral system, has established being parliamentary sub-courtyard and at the same time the reorganization to the state conference has carried on being parliamentary superior courtyard. Although the election principle of national Duma is not very democratic and has certain qualifications limitation, and the Duma’s authority also is restricted, but not all the state conference member are produced by election, of whom half are appointed by the Czar, after all, they are election institution, which has limited the despotic emperor’s authority in the certain degree. In 1905 a highest brand-new implementing agency—minister conference has established which is similar to the western cabinet. However, since the activity of the diplomacy, the army, the navy, as well as the imperial department isn’t limited by the minister conference, this reform also has a certain limitation. The department structure has also had some changes, industry and commerce department was established in 1905; In 1906 the agriculture and the national resources department (in 1893 be changed to this name) were changed to the land plan and agricultural management bureau and renamed as Ministry of Agriculture in 1915.In Czar Russia, besides the system of“the conventional state institution”,there are some special organizations, for example, the Czar Your Majesty office and the highest committee in Nicolas I time, each kind of special consultative conference in the First World War and so on, which is not limited by the legal rule and the highest and the central organization system, this has manifested the infinite despotic authority principle in the greatest degree.The next is divided into six chapters. The first chapter, the formation and development of state official system; the second chapter, state official’s assign system; the third chapter, state official’s official rank system; the fourth chapter, state official’s responsibility systems and incentive system; the fifth chapter, state official’s surveillance system and raise system; the sixth chapter, state official’s management structure and its basic right and social security.The Russian official system forms at the time when the rank on behalf of the monarchy transforms to the absolute monarchy; its symbol is that the "Officer Order Table" is promulgated. In the process of national official system developing, official’s politics, the service and the moral request has been gradually established and official’s right and the duty has been clear and the official to select, promotion, raise, surveillance, rewards and punishment , social security and so on systems have been established and consummated. In the Russia emperor time, the national civil service official can be divided into two main kinds. One is fourteen-class placeman which is stipulated in”Officer Order Table" and the other is the clerk whose duty isn’t included in the "Officer Order Table". The government official may be divided into three levels according to his official rank grade and different level government official’s right and salary l phase six to one. In the entire Russia history, the number of the national officials has not achieved the general scale of Europe.The Russia official’s promotion system is quite mechanical for it is according to the salary in year, which leads to the administrative official’s serious bureaucratism. The Czar government also unceasingly carries on the reform to the civilian’s promotion system, such as reducing the limitation in the rank of family background, impelling the officials to enhance the cultural level and so on, and they have obtained a certain achievement in improving officials constitution and enhance official’s quality. However, on the whole, the reformation course was too slow, falling behind the request of life.To strengthen the officials’sense of responsibility, the Czar government established an entire set of mechanism, of which the main is establishing relational law foundation and stipulating each kind of forms of investigating the official’s responsibility. The relevant law indicated that the Czar government mainly trained the official’s spirit to obey requesting them putting their weight and handling affairs legally.In the national civil official’s work and the moral quality , the Czar government proposed a clear request that establishing an entire set of spirit and matter incentive system to encourage the officials to be diligent, highly effective to work when by all kinds of punishment measures strengthening their work discipline and sense of responsibility.Participating in government courtyard’s surveillance, examination organization’s surveillance and the national supervise bureau’s financial supervision, these three constituted an entire set of surveillance mechanism, which played a constructive role in the process of realization of promoting the national main function and enhancing the efficiency of civilian’s work, but the Czar government could not establish the perfect national surveillance organization successfully. The Czar government took measure to enhance the civilian’s education level and professional skill and has obtained a certain achievement, especially in the next half of 19th century, the important duty in the domain of national management is held by the expert with culture, vocational education and experience. However, on the whole, the holistic official’s cultural level is still not high, so the duty of coming into being a national official with high quality has never completed.In Emperor Russia time, the special national official management institution is successively as below: patrician management bureau of participating in government courtyard, civilian supervise department of the Czar Your Majesty office, patrician management bureau, civilian’s work and reward committee and the civilian supervise department. In order to level off the national civilian and enhance their work enthusiasm, the Czar government takes the measure to provide a certain right and social security for the national civilian. In this aspect, the government mainly devotes to: enhancing the prestige of civilian’s work, safeguarding the stability of civilian’s work and promotion, providing the salary of a government official for the civilian, providing the retirement pension and so on. The state provides a certain social security to the officials, such as enjoying the relative higher social position, holding public office for lifetime, enjoying promotion right, receiving the salary of a government official, enjoying the retirement pension and so on, which all have many progressive factors. But in the aspect of social policy, the government devotes to cultivate this kind of official who is required to satisfy the request of autarchy and its ruler, has a quality of unconditional obedience, abides the higher authority’s rules and instruction strictly, gives up the self-thought and the innovative ideology completely. Until the national retirement pension’s providing from the official rank promotion system, all of these caused the civilian to be in the status of completely attached to the political power and also causes them to be in the status out of enough social security.