Study on Bargaining History of Chosǒn Towards Houjin(Qing) in Injo’s Reign(1623-1649)
|Keywords||Fame Contention Principia Realism Contradictory National Benefit|
The dynastic change from Ming to Qing is one of the most important topics in historic studies in China and abroad. It also takes a special role in the research field of history of Sino-Korean relationship. This dissertation addresses the staggered characteristic of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomacy towards Houjin(Qing) during the period of King Injo’s reign (1623-1649), which follows the rule of historic development and divides the relationship between them into different phases by Dingmao War and Bingzi War. During analyzing the characteristic in each phase, the following methods is adopted: (1) According to historical comparison of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomatic guidelines and policies towards Houjin during the period of King Gwanghaegun’s and Injo’s reign, similarity and differentia are discussed. Then the change of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s attitude and diplomatic policies towards Houjin during 26 years of King Injo’s reign are obtained. (2) The influence and effect of struggle in different parties of Chos(o|ˇ)n on Gwanghaegun’s diplomatic decision-making are analyzed. The contradiction that hides behind the decision-making are also showed up. With the subjective influential factors, a new explanation to Chos(o|ˇ)n’s loss in Dingmao War and Bingzi War and the slowness of the negotiation between Chos(o|ˇ)n and Houjin are proposed. (3) King Injo’s character in politics, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomatic concept, diplomatic character and ethnic character are discussed.The dissertation includes six chapters. The introduction in chapter one illustrates the reason for choosing the research task and its academic value. The frame of the dissertation, research clue and research method are determined by organizing, analyzing and making literature review for historic materials that relating to this historic period. Generally, domestic scholars have showed their trait in the history study from the points of view of folk and macro-scope. However, there is a lack of transposition thinking and interactive research of historic roles. Meanwhile, Korean scholars uplifted ideal character of the diplomacy of Chos(o|ˇ)n due to affection of the ideas in historical materials. The objective of their studies are inadequate. Additionally, past studies were inclined to takes Chos(o|ˇ)n as a passive role in the Chinese-barbarism system and stress the exterior factors that influenced Chos(o|ˇ)n. Its personality as a body who implemented the policy had been neglected. Therefore, the dissertation analyzes and summarizes the characteristics, influencing factors and concepts of Injo’s diplomacy with Houjin by combination political and cultural background of Chos(o|ˇ)n. Chapter two provides background for the history of King Injo’s diplomacy towards Houjin. King Gwanghaegun took fence-sitting policy during Chos(o|ˇ)n helped Ming Dynasty to attack Houjin. Gwanghaegun’s policy was opposite to Chos(o|ˇ)n’s mainstream as Zunzhou and Shida(respecting Ming Dynasty and following the great power). King Injo assumed its reins by taking benefits from the politic atmosphere that traditional politic power criticized King Gwanghaegun fiercely. King Injo played under the banner of the pro-Ming and negated Gwanghaegun completely. He returned to ’principle’ diplomatic guideline. King Injo’s criticism on King Gwanghaegun was out of political and public need for his struggle. Therefore, it was difficult to evaluate Gwanghaegun’s diplomacy fairly as they were accompanied by personal emotions and political bias. In order to make full use of Ming Dynasty’s power to solve Chos(o|ˇ)n’s frontier crisis in the north, King Injo protested actively to cooperate Ming Dynasty to attack Houjin. However, due to benefit adjustment among the reigning group and decay of Chos(o|ˇ)n, the nation’s status had not been improved from King Injo’s government. King Injo regressed to King Gwanghaegun’s realism diplomatic policy. Their activities were more secluded than that of King Gwanghaegun. The balance between fame and benefits led to King Injo’s hesitation in diplomatic decision-making. Their worry about fame was the focus and start point of the political conflicts among different parties in the government.Chapter three inspects outbreak of the Dingmao War and the bargaining between the two countries after the war. From the beginning of war to making pledge in Pyongyang, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s attitude was changed from adamancy to compromise. This change thoroughly demonstrated that King Injo’s diplomatic guideline had been regressed to Gwanghaegun’s realism. In the front of powerful enemy, frailty King Injo evaded the conjuncture and dodged into Jiangdu hurriedly to protect their lives and benefits. They abandoned on the responsibility of the nation. This was opposite to their ’obligation’ completely. Fame puzzled Chos(o|ˇ)n and this could be considered as the ideological roots that led to Chos(o|ˇ)n’s quickly loss in the war with Houjin. Controversy about Huanhuo (solve the war by peaceful way) and Chihe (oppositional standpoint towards the way by using peace talks with Houjin), i.e., argument about Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomatic guideline, was also aroused by the war. As to egotistic King Injo who took the benefit of imperial clansman on the first place, principle had to obey realism. Though the pledge made by Chos(o|ˇ)n and Houjin in Jiangdu had the aspect of encroaching Chos(o|ˇ)n’s national benefits, much more showed the significance that Houjin and Chos(o|ˇ)n restricted kept away from each other, which was good for Chos(o|ˇ)n. Because Chos(o|ˇ)n refused to admit the facticity of Pyongyang pledge, Jiangdu pledge was considered as the warranty by Chos(o|ˇ)n to maintain their right and benefits after the war. In order to protect Chos(o|ˇ)n’s security, benefits and dignity, Chos(o|ˇ)n stalwartly struggled with Houjin in the aspects of hastening to withdraw troops of Houjin from Yizhou, requesting captives from Houjin coming into being by the war, rejecting Houjin’s request for commerce on Chos(o|ˇ)n’s frontier. They showed their strong but flexible character in diplomacy. During these diplomatic struggle, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s different attitudes toward Ming Dynasty and Houjin caused tremendous psychological gap to Houjin. This had deepened Houjin’s hostility to Ming Dynasty and Chos(o|ˇ)n and led the Chos(o|ˇ)n-Houjin’s relationship to new conflicts.Chapter four took the Bingzi War between Chos(o|ˇ)n and Houjin as a watershed to narrate the change of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomatic status towards Houjin. After the Dingmao War, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s domestic situation went from bad to worse. ’Huanhuo’ contention which was deemed could solve the problem now could not rescue their country and a new contention of strugglling for revenge appeared. Although this excited their people, the relationship between the two countries had broken down. Chos(o|ˇ)n took the initiative to ease their relationships, Huangtaiji decided to declare the war towards Chos(o|ˇ)n and so called Bingzi War broke out. Under the situation that Chos(o|ˇ)n’s reinforcement was blocked by Houjin, Injo and his liegeman re-considered peace talks and re-done some exploratory efforts. Negotiation was delayed as Chos(o|ˇ)n government avoided the important things and dwelled on the trivial ones. Finally, Injo had to surrender to end the war. Compared with Dingmao War, Chos(o|ˇ)n became more passive and this change showed growth of Qing Dynasty. This also indicated that Qing Dynasty will overthrow traditional Chinese-barbarism system, though Chos(o|ˇ)n refused to admit ideologically. Without realistic victory, ’Chijue’ contention became barren and even was thought to be the reason for damaging the nation. This was thought to be great sorriness for the nation. Fame contention tested the nation’s willing in hard times, led to molder atmosphere, exacerbated the political differentiation and impeded Chos(o|ˇ)n’s decision-making and judgment to the war.Chapter five analyzes the diplomatic situation between Chos(o|ˇ)n and Houjin after Santiandu covenant was made. Santiandu covenant followed the model of traditional Chinese-barbarism system, which formally prescribed the relationship between Qing Dynasty and Chos(o|ˇ)n. Because Santiandu covenant was made with special wartime background so that there were many non-rational factors in the development of the relationship. Especially, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s prince was taken to Shenyang as hostage for many years, which was considered as the basic mean to control Chos(o|ˇ)n government. This was the most important factor that influenced the Injo’s diplomatic decision-making of towards Qing Dynasty for more than ten years after the Bingzi War. Though Chos(o|ˇ)n developed it military power secretly and the action that Chos(o|ˇ)n deprecated the control of Qing Dynasty never stopped, Chos(o|ˇ)n government learnt from the Bingzi War. Its attitudes towards Houjin became more realistic than before. Chos(o|ˇ)n could not tolerate Qing Dynasty’s encroachment on its benefits and threat on its national safety, which desecrated Chos(o|ˇ)n’s manners and morality. Chos(o|ˇ)n people became quite indignant and despaired, which just was the main reason that Chos(o|ˇ)n’s society from the period of King Injo’s reign surged the ideaistic and political tide that Chos(o|ˇ)n contradicted Qing Dynasty and disrelish Qing Dynasty for a long time. On the other hand, Qing Dynasty often showed its power to Chos6n, which just indicated Qing Dynasty’s inferiority behind its victory in military affairs. Houjin hoped to win the authority in new Chinese-barbarism system through its victory and strength, but these efforts were not acknowledged by Chos(o|ˇ)n. Chos(o|ˇ)n was good at realistic and flexible diplomacy, but its credendum that kept nation’s independence and recognized the cultural authority of Ming Dynasty was never given up. Therefore, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s emotion of revenge would break out sooner or later.Chapter six draws the conclusion of this dissertation. The understanding of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomatic guideline is promoted by analyzing the historic facts. Firstly, principle and realism diplomatic policy co-existed and conflicted in King Injo’s reign period, which puzzled King Injo and his supporters for a long time. Zunzhou, Shida and fame are uppermost principle of Chos(o|ˇ)n’s diplomacy. Chos6n’s attitude towards Ming Dynasty was the focus of the argument between Chos(o|ˇ)n and Qing Dynasty. Qing Dynasty detested the fact that Chos(o|ˇ)n depended on Ming Dynasty’s power and showed boastful gesture in diplomatic affairs. Chos(o|ˇ)n’s arrogance and disobedience could been easily seen in its activities. Fame contention divulged Chos(o|ˇ)n’s outwardly strong and inwardly weak status. They lacked placid mentality to recognize the situation and were unprepared for the situation that reality was inconsistent with their imagination. Secondly, Chos(o|ˇ)n’s decision-making was usually based on their idealistic judgment and their diplomacy was influenced by emotion. King Injo’s love knot to gens and his personal emotion completely exhibited in his diplomatic policy. Injo and his supporter’s nation concept was narrow and selfish, so that they abandoned their responsibility on the whole nation and escaped to protect their own’s benefits. Finally, in conclusion, Injo and his supporters not only pursued fame and ’obligation’, but also protect their own benefits, which especially emphasized their egotistic attitude in diplomacy. Especially, in front of disaster of the nation, they even emphasized their principal ideology and solipsism. Though Chos(o|ˇ)n people puzzled by fame contention, their diplomatic pursuit for nation’s and gens’ benefit was unchanged. For one government who reduced the nation’s benefits to gens’ benefits and reduced the nation to gens, it was difficult to rescue the decaying nation. The fact that Chos(o|ˇ)n’s national dignity fell down and the reign order of society subsided, the dissatisfaction emotion of the society grew on. Therefore, during the period of King Hyojong, in order to figure Chos(o|ˇ)n society’s relief on the nation and the kingship, Confucian scholar Song Shilie actively sparkpluged to repair and explain Wangdao and fame contention again.