Studies on the Chinese Textbooks in Korea Dynasties
|Keywords||Joseon era English Mandarin textbooks Interlanguage Language features|
Korea era is the most active period in Korean history for its applying and teaching of the Chinese language.For the urgent need of wide exchange of politics,economy and culture in so many levels,the Chinese language teaching in Korea era had reflected a most active development in Chinese language teaching rules,the traing of Chinese language qualified personnel and the managing of Chinese language teaching,and made the level of the Chinese language teaching reach a unprecedented height in that time.And the Chinese language teaching system, administrative agency and the achievement of the Chinese language teaching which was formed in that times were made an important influence for the later Chinese language teaching in Korea.Especially, the textbook of the Chinese official dialect formed in that long historic period was reflected the many levels of information of politics,economy and policy,it provided important basis to us to research the development of the Chinese language in that times.For this we will conduct comprehensive classed-investigate and annotation,and to seek the basic discipline of the developing of the Chinese official dialect textbooks as well as the enlightenment for the emerging of the foreign Chinese language textbooks in modern era.This research will have significant meanings for knowing the systerm of the Korean Chinese official dialect textbook and questing the spreading and developing of Han learning.This essay will set off the systematic research of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era in four sides as follows: 1. The history,meanings, method and the train of thought of the researching of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era. We has organized and analysed on the systerm and achievement of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era,and based on it we has arranged the analysing frame and the systerm of Han learning teaching and the Han learning textbooks in Korean era.And to find the origination and the development of the sequence of ideas for the research of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era,to explicit the problems in the research of it,then to explicit the basic method and the train of thought.To observe the history of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era domestic and international,we have found that there are four kinds of its achivements:The first is to examine and arrange for the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The second is the language research for the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The third is the language teaching research for the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The forth is the research of the historiography for the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The researchers have acquired plentiful achivement,but it also have some weak points as follow. The first, it still has some negligence in the arranging of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The second, its situation of the language research is single and lacking the systematicness.The third,it is not perfect in revealing the“unconventional using of Chinese language”in the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The forth, it is not to hold the discipline clearly for the choosing the content of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.For this reason,we will also determine our researching thought.2. The record,edition and interrelated problems of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.It is necessary that the starting point of the Chinese official dialect textbooks’research is based on the comprehensive collection and thumbing through, to describe the state of the edition,collated edition and the record systematically.The Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era have last a long time and have many editions.Among these Chinese books, it includes not only the textbooks that introduced Chinese language’s different content,but also have different edition for each kind textbook,and the collated edition followed.These textbooks has provided plentiful language data to us for the research.According to the collecting and arranging for the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era,we have found that there are 12 major editions of existing LaoQiDa, including 7 Chinese language editions and 5 annotating editions. There are 4 editions of PiaoTongShi, including 1 Chinese language edition and 3 annotating editions. XunShiPingHua only has the wooden edition of JiangLing, in ZhongZong 13 (ZhengDe 13 of Ming Dynasty,1518).There is a Chinese language edition and a collated edition of HuaYinQiMeng.And there is a hand-copied edition and a rewritten edition named XueQing of NiNeGuiXing.The Collection of The Chinese Language textbooks in Korean era (Chinese Publishing House, 2005) which is collated by Dr.WangWeiHui,China, is the most accurate in so many collated editions of the Chinese official textbooks in Korean era, and it is the most insightful and the deepest in introductory note.3. The selecting and changing of the contents of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean eraThe systerm of compile and the main contents are have been experinencing the intrinsic and extrinsic change by the postponing of time.The selecting of the Chinese official dialect textbooks’contents can express the writers’angle of choosing document data, the teaching consciousness accordingly,and also can express the orientation of value for the education rules of the Chinese official dialect.We think that the choosing of the Chinese official dialect textbooks’contents is a dynamic and developing process.On the one hand we will seek and found the characteristics of choosing the contents of the textbooks in different stage in Korean history, on the other hand we will quest the changing of the textbooks’contents in different era and then will bring out the history reasons for these changing. We have found that there are two kinds of the Chinese official textbooks’form in the early and middle of Korea.One kind of the textbooks is to train the speech skills of students,namely, Translating of LaoQiDa,Translating of PiaoTongShi, Collating of LiaoQiDa and Collating of PiaoTongShi.The other kind is the reading comprehension which can culture the reading skills,namely, XunShiPingHua.It can also be two kinds on contents, one kind is the educating contents. Such as LiBian’XunShiPingHua,large part of its contents are stemed from Chinese Confucian classic writings and also have the admired contents of loyalty,filial piety and rigorously chaste to educate the readers.And the other kind is the practical contents mainly shown by the“commercial trade”and the“social life”. The contents of commercial trade has been a large part in early Chinese official dialect textbooks, although the range of the trade is so wide, the most part of contents is the trade of horses and silk fabric.This is the main characteristic through the whole systerm of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.These contents have deeply history background.In Later Yuan Dynasty and Early Ming Dynasty, for the reasons of frequent wars, the busing traffic of posthouse and so on, the wastage of horses is so large and need to add great numbers of it naturally.To cope with the situation of the increasable need of horses, the Yuan Governments had took some measures and to set up the governmental horse place and the trade place for horses are the most important means.Koryo Dynasty and Korea under the suzerain-vassal systern, their main tributes to China are horses and ramie cloth. However, the emerging of the cultivating contents in LiBian’s XunShiPingHua is the more need of the thought of the“supressing the Buddha and commending the Confucianism”.In early Korea, its rulers adhered to three main national affairs (To serve the power and make relationship with neighouring country, to supress the Buddha and commend the Confucianism and made the agriculture as the basis ) as the base of their country,and“to supress the Buddha and commend the Confucianism”is their main cultural thought. But because the large part of the contents in Chinese official dialect textbooks which followed from the last dynasty such as LaoQiDa and PiaoTongShi are“the talk of traders”,the cultivating textbooks, XunShiPingHua ,which proclaimed the admonish of“three cardinal guides and five constant virtues in feual ethical code”of Confucianism should be emerged logically.In the later Korea, the systerm of the Chinese official dialect textbooks had been a series of changnig with the social development accordingly.On the one hand, the contents of the commerical trade is still as its main part.On the other hand, the cultivating textbooks, XunShiPingHua, was lost in later Korean era, and withdrew from the stage of Chinese official dialect teaching gradually.As well as textbooks, the contents in later have many differences with early and middle. The main difference was the talkers from traders changing into ambassadors, and the speech contents also changed from the trading activities to ambassadors’acitivities.This changing can reflect the main status of ambassadors in the political association and commerical trade, and the concelling of the cultivating textbooks can more reflect the dawnfall of the Confucianism and the prosperous of Silhak in the later Korean era.4. The research of the linguistic consciousness’changing of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.The contents and the changing of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era have reflected the real situation of China and Korea in different stages in history and the subtly changing of the relationship between China and Korea.And the language features and changing in different editions also reflected the changing of Chinese language consciousness in Korean era.Not only in the pronunciation but also in vocabulary and grammar, the Chinese official dialect textbooks had many important changing in early and middle Korean era, especially the language in the different editions.In the side of pronunciation, the characteristic which shown by the disappearing of wei-initial consonant,the palatalization of the systerm of jian-initial and xiao-initial,the devoiced of the vocied initial consonant and the disappearing of the tail vowel of /-m/ in the northern dialect has been the living fossile of the development of the voice systerm in the northern dialect.At the same time, it can also proof the truth that the official dialect in Korean era is based on the northern official dialect.But we must pay attention to the truth that there are also some voiced characteristic existing in the later official dialect textbooks such as The Collated of XuaYinQiMeng and NiNeGuiXing, are defferent from those in the former textbooks.These characteristic include the confusion of flat-tongue and the sticking up-tongue,the zero of r-initial.In vocabulary, first the changing of superordinate vocabulary in the“semantic fied of He”has shown the developing rail of northern official dialect.Second, some vocabulary with the characteristic of northeast official dialect have been shown in the Chinese official dialect textbooks in later Korean era.This situation can tell us that the northern official dialect is the base of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era, and the early base is“the Han er speech”, and the base in the middle and the later is the northern official dialect intermingled with northeast official dialect. So the changing of the linguistic consciousness is based on the changing of the thought of“Sincere and Serve the power , Honour the Zhou and Ponder the Ming”and the dominant situation with Liaodong.5. The research of“unconventional using of Chinese language”of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.Both the writers and the users of the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era are all the persons who have his own mother-tongue and to learn other language.In Korean era it was not strange to emerge many “unconventional using of Chinese language”phenomena and it even so naturally. And just because of these phenomena, we can make it as the basis to seek the discipline in the learning course while take Chinese language as the acquired language and to quest the language syncretism and changing.The phenomenon of unconventional using of Chinese language can be reflected by two trails.One is the“Han er speech”in the early and middle era,the other is the“unconventional Chinese language”which produced by the Chinese official textbooks’writers when he acquired Chinese language.The“Han er speech”in the early and middle era can be shown by the borrowed words which rooted from Mongolian and Korean and the systerm of postposition in Mongolian. And the main part of the later“unconventional Chinese language”is the“interlingua”which emerged from the course of acquiring Chinese language by the writers.And the reasons can be shown as follow: the negative changing of Chinese official dialect textbooks’writers’mother-tongue and the generalization of the target language rules.By the observing and research of the“unconventional Chinese language”in the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era, we think that the phenomenon of interligua which produced in the course of acquiring the second language can also be explained by the theory of language variation, and it can be a case in point to proof that“language as a heterogeneous orderly systerm”. Actually, when a person learned thoroughly the second language at some level, there would be two sub-systerm of language in his brain: the systrms of mother-tongue and the target language.Expect for some orders he will add target language into his speech on purpose,or his target language can not interfere his mother-tongue systerm.On the contrary, his mother-tongue systerm would interfere his target language systerm more or less when he talked or written with target language, and then it can produce“variation element”such as the“unconventional Chinese language”in the Chinese official dialect textbooks in Korean era.As a kind of variation element, if it can be accept widely in society, weaken its variation vestige, then to be merged with regular and standard language symbols, so it would be reflected by“structure→variation with orderly state→structure”.If it can not be accept by the major numbers of persons, the variation language would disappear gradually and would not make conspicuous influence on the order symbol systerm of original language. For example, the“Han er speech”which emerged in early and middle Korean era has a lot of Mongolian factors, which had been thought as“unconventional Chinese language”, but because it was accept by large numbers of persons, the scholars took it as the exemplify to reflect the real situation of language contact at that time.But with the entering to the central plains of China of Qing Dynasty and the excluding the main influence of Chinese culture, except for some specific vocabularies, the most of Mongolian interlingua had been disappeared, too. And the systerm of postposition in Han er speech was one of the important elements, and this was also the important reason to explain why Mongolian postposition had been not appeared in the Chinese official dialect textbooks in later Korea.Similarly to the Mongolian interlingua, the Chinese official dialect textbooks written by Chinese learners in Korean era also have some Chinese“variation elements”, for the influence of the Korean of Altai language systerm, such as“v+o→o+v”,“the dislocation of adverb”and so on.These variation elements can be accept by the scholars who took the Korean language as their mother-tongue in the scope of Chinese official dialect in Korean era.We can say completely that although the interlingua in the Chinese official dialect in Korean era is the heterogeneous elements and orderly, it also differs from the Chinese official dialect at the same time, and belongs to“unconventional Chinese language”.To pay attention to, as a a second language learner, the interlingua express is a dynamic and changing course.With the learning more and more deeply, his interlingua would also close to his target language gradually, then it can realize the language expressing order as “structure→variation with orderly state→structure”. Because the textbooks we can contact only express one of the sections of using the Chinese language by the writers, but not the series of the works with the chaning of time by him , such as XunShinPingHua, The Collated of HuaYinQiMeng and NiNeGuiXing. So, these interlingua variation elements in those Chinese official dialect textbooks are the same with the interlingua which is not corrected in the later Chinese official dialect textbooks. Its developing orientation can only be the form of“structure→variation with orderly state”, and cannot be the form of“structure→variation with orderly state→structure”.