A Study of Indonesian-U.S.Relations (1945-1966)
|Keywords||India-US relations Indonesia Neutralism Foreign policy Sukarno Science Press Containment strategy University Press Knowledge of the world Communism|
Indonesian-US relations experienced a changing course of friendship , confrontation,détente and deterioration from 1945 to 1966.The essence of Indonesian-US relations reflected the conflicts and contradictions between a rising developing nation and a superpower of the cold war.Chapter I . The Historical Background of Indonesian - US RelationsThis chapter discussed the historical background of Indonesian-US relations.The cold war and the third world provided the international context for the Indonesian-US relations. The bipolar structure and ideological conflict of the cold war had forced every third world country to choose between socialism and capitalism,However, the complicated situation within itself also supplied the two superpowers one opportunity struggling for the third world. Indonesia and US, One was a new born country, Another was superpower, with different history and different national tasks.One was burdened with anti-colonism and constructing nation-states ,Another faced up to the challenges of the socialism and revolution .Chapter 2. The Friendship of Indonesian–US Relations :The temporary common interests between Indonesia and U.S.(1945-1953) It was the Friendship period of Indonesian -US relations from 1945 to 1953. The main linkage between U.S.and Dutch Eastern Indies were the commerical trade and Dutch colonisim before Indonesian independence. The key problem of Indonesian -US relations was the American policy towards the dispute between Indonesian and US .The US took neutrality at first, then forced Dutch to acknowledge Indonesian independence when Dutch took second police action.Indonesia and U.S had temporary common interests on containment of communist.The Truman administration provided Indonesia a lot of assistance in order to inducing Indonesia into the alliance with US. Another was Indonesian endeavour to get the American support on the West Irian dispute. The Indonesia did not realize its aim because the Truman administration did not understand Indonesian nationalism and exaggerated communist danger in Indonesia, and so it was with US because of Indonesian sticking to neutralismChapter 3 The transformation of Indonesian policy and The Conflict of Indonesian-US Relations (1953-1959) There were conflicts between Indonesia and US from 1953 to 1959. Indonesian-US Relations became worse due to the Eisenhower’s support to the rebel in outer islands in Indonesia. The Ali cabinet and President Sukarno took series of policies, such as permitting communists into the government ,anti-colonism and developing relations with the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China ,therefore, the Eisenhower’s administration viewed that these changes would lead to the communists in power in Indonesia and took containment on it.The Eisenhower’s administration was forced to acknowleged the facts of Indonesia’s sticking to neutralism and Indonesian superpower in the control of sukarno after the rebel failed .. Chapter 4. The Detente and Deterioration :The fluctuation of Indonesian-US Relations(1959-1966)The changes of Indonesian-US Relations became hardest from 1959 to 1966.When the Dutch turned the West Irian back to Indonesia because of Kennedy’s support, Indonesian-US Relations tended to détente. Indonesian-US Relations tended to deterioration owning to Malaysia crisis after 1963.It entered to the pacific period when the communists were put down and the army took pro-west policy after“9·30”accident.Chapter 5: The analysis of Indonesian-US RelationsThe relationship between Indonesian neutralism and US strategy of containment was the fundamental factor which influenced Indonesian-US Relations.There were two fundamental models, The first one was the Kennedy administration’s attitude to Indonesian neutralism, which acknowleged the neutralism and induced Indonesia into the modernization path led by U.S through resolving the West Irian. In U.S view,It would eradicte the social soil where Indonesian Communist existed . The second one was the Eisenhower’s administration attitude to Indonesian neutralism.The Eisenhower’s administration denied the neutralism, took neutralism as the first step which Indonesia tolerated the communists and allowed the communists into power, therefore,the Eisenhower’s administration took containment on it .The Dutch was the important factors which influenced the development of Indonesian-US Relations. It influenced the understanding and foreign policy making between Indonesia and US. In one words, the Dutch colonism deepeded the doubts and hostiles between Indonesia and US.With vital geographic situation and important resources, Indonesia was the object which the East and West struggle for in the bipolar structure of the cold war. It was in this way that China- Indonesian Relations and Soviet- Indonesian Relations would have direct effect on the Indonesian-US Relations. The friendship between China-Indonesian and Soviet- Indonesian would help to the détente of Indonesian-US Relations when Indonesia sticked to neutralism in the east and west blocks. However, The friendship between China-Indonesian and Soviet- Indonesian would deepened the hostile of U.S towards Indonesia when sukaro sticked to set up the axis of anti-colonism between Indonesia and China .The internal politics of U.S and Indonesia had great effects on each foreign policy .For U.S, the congress handicapped the foreign policy making which was in the hand of president.There were two kinds of foreign policy making in the administration on Indonesian affairs, the one was kennedy’s foreign policy making,which was called presidential decision .The other was Eisenhower’s foreign policy making,which was called bureaucratic decision.The two kinds of decision making had different effect on Indonesian-U.S relations.As a new born nation of the third world, There were many competing political forces in Indonesia . Indonesia sticked to neutralism and took the anti-colonism ,soveignty as the first object of foreign policy. Many competing political forces in Indonesia were the determining factor to Indonesian policy towards U.S.