Research on the Structure of Knowledge of the Excellent Track and Field Coaches in China
|Course||Physical Education and Training|
|Keywords||Track and field Excellent coach Knowledge composition degrees of importance knowledge Structure|
The demands people’s fundamental ability of running, jumping, throwing, and walking, and it is also a type of sports which offer the biggest number of Olympic medals. Among the factors that affect athletics achievement, the biggest external one is the levels of the coaches, which include various abilities of the coaches, and the level of professional knowledge etc. But the competitive athletics is very professional. Without the professional knowledge, the coaches’ ability of the other aspects can not work. Therefore, the knowledge level of the coaches is the base of their job.With the arrival of the new century, the changes and the new trend have brought challenges for the cultivation of the new type of talented sportsmen. To study the structure of knowledge of the excellent coaches of track and field in our country, we can have a better understanding of the characteristics and rules of the development of the competitive sports. To sum up, arrange and draw lessons from the characteristic of the composition and structure knowledge of the excellent track and field coaches can provide effective theory support for arranging knowledge and idea of the science training, and reinforce the construction of the theory of physical training and cultivation of talented sportsman.Introduction of the content and the method of the researchUsing the national track and field coaches as subjects, the thesis studies the composition, effect, relations and the characteristics of the knowledge structure of the excellent coaches in our country through the methods of literature review, observation, questionnaire and mathematical statistics.The study, which is based on the theory of knowledge and systematology methodology and combines the characteristics of the training of the track and field, focuses on the following aspects:(1) To study and define the connotation and denotation of the structure of knowledge of track and field coaches;(2) To clarify the categories and composition of the knowledge of the track and field coaches; (3) To and analysis the position, effect and interrelation of different parts of the knowledge of the track and field coaches;(4) To show the characteristics of the knowledge structure of the track and field coaches.Result of the research:(1) Professional knowledge of track and field coaches is all knowledge about athletics, which is a part or a branch of all knowledge of the coaches, and the professional knowledge for the work of track and field coaching. Track and field coaches’ knowledge appears in forms of points, lines, and areas. It should be all-round characteristic, which includes all knowledge being related to the profession of track and field. The knowledge, which takes the professional track and field training as the direction, and pertinent discipline as supporting basis, is one organization system that could be restructured, reformed, and expanded. The knowledge line are linked up by adjacent knowledge, which is a knowledge aggregate of system; the knowledge point of the track and field coaches ought to be the base unit that is composed of track and field coaches’ knowledge.(2) Knowledge of track and field coaches can be divided into three categories according to the characteristics of knowledge, content and process of the training and the factors that affect athletics achievement. The three categories can be subdivided into three levels, the first level including 8 indices, the second level 29 indices and third level 135 indices. These three categories knowledge summarizes the knowledge a track and field coach ought to own.(3) Knowledge of track and field coaches has different scales of importance according to the category and content. At the same time, these different types of knowledge play different e roles in actual work.Main conclusion(1) The excellent track and field coaches in our country are a special occupation group. They have the common characteristic of the excellent coaches: conscientious, firm and tenacious. And they have plenty of training experiences and pay attention to study of relevance knowledge, and have very extensive knowledge.(2) To the knowledge of the track and field coaches, in different training stages of training, the focus of work and knowledge needed of the coaches is different. In the primary stage, the training is focused on the all- round technology and physical q. In improvement stage, the training is focused on the technology embodying the characteristic of the athletes and the game, and improvement of specific physical quality of the athletes. In the advanced stage, the focus of the training is to find the potentialities of the athletes and bring them into full play. An excellent track and field coach ought to know the all knowledge of every development stage of the athletes.(3) Knowledge of track and field coaches is a reflection of the track and field training. Each part of the knowledge composition is essential for the track and field coaches, but in the process of track and field training, each part plays different roles and has different positions in their categories.(4) the core knowledge of the track and field coaches that have direct relation with training and achievement, can be classified into there types, that is ,the knowledge to identify congenital body condition of the athletes, knowledge and opinions of athletics technology, methodology of body and technology training of the athletes. Other types of knowledge have different position in the knowledge structure of the track and field coaches, according to the degree they affect the track and field training and the contests. The characteristic of the knowledge structure the track and field coaches correspond with the characteristic of the track and field sports that show the physical abilities through technology.(6) Learning is an important approach to acquire knowledge. It is an basis of innovation, and innovation is the basis of change and improvement. Professional knowledge that the coach grasps by practice is more important. So the core knowledge of the training is gained through practice.(7) The technology is important in the track and field training, it is also important in competitive sports. That’s because the technology and the physical power are decisive factors that affect the achievement. In the process of training, the perfect combination of the two factors makes it possible for the athletes to perform well. It is unreasonable to ignoring any one aspect. Both knowledge from books and experiences are requirements for the coaches in the process training. And both of them need to be tested t in practice. The knowledge which proves true is the spirit; the process of practice is a process of growing up for the excellent coach. The excellent coach owns valuable knowledge which has been tested in practice.(8) Knowledge structure of excellent track and field coaches in our country should be the pyramid type. In this structure, the longitudinal frame is composed of category knowledge, lateral frame is composed of knowledge of same levels but of different scales of importance, the meeting point of different types of knowledge is the knowledge gained in practice.