Towards the Hegemonic Orientation of Educational Strategies in the United States
|Keywords||America Nationalism education tactic hegemonic orientation|
The universe is grateful for nourishing everything on earth in silence. During American colonial time and the early days of its founding, education in America developed in loose environment without the control of government. The colonial government and the federal government in early time of America founding took attitude of laisser-faire, while education of all levels and all classes developed rapidly in the inspiration of religion spirit. Under the Morril Act, which promulgated in the period of the War Between the States, the federal government and the Congress began to intervene into education. The enaction and practice of American education tactic can be divided into four phases according to the how deeply the federal government intervened in education. It showed that the orientation of American education strategy has developed from simply developing economy and strengthening the state to roundly serving America in global competition and pursuing hegemony; from narrow participate of federal government to wide intervention of federal government and Congress, even the federal Supreme Court;from the Congress formulating education strategy passively and scantly to forwardly and to ensure the strategy implement effectually by means of the law. From 1980s, there are four presidents preferring to control education intensively. The extent of their concern of education has become the weightiness of contending the post of president. Education strategy has become the import aspect in American politics.The success of education tactic lied on a variety of factors. The practical effect of American education strategy chiefly benefited from its clear orientation. Furthermore, religion emotion of American and their advanced education ideal were the indispensable conditions. America is one of countries where religious thought is dense. The religion influences both individual’s life and common life universally in America. The religion influenced national education tactic by means of its universality, perspective, concept of equality, enlightenment of the testament, and godliness of the common people. Besides, American education was continuously influenced by European education ideal. While absorbing European education ideal, U.S. formed its own ones. Dewey’s education philosophy has answered the significant academic problems of the social economic development and democracy expansion, which became the golden rule of American education strategy. While the essential factor, which influenced the impact of bringing American education strategy in to effect, was American powerful economy. American has ensured education development with non-deficit education investment.Regulating education activities by economic measure is one of the import characters of American education tactic. The education strategy maker regards“Market orients best and competition achieves superexcellence”as the golden rule. Regulating education by means of economy can collocate education resource effectively, immit energy into education system, and enhance the efficiency of education. Besides, it can ensure freedom of education and financial aid for education, and avoid great fluctuation caused by government’s ultra policy. Education is closely related to national science and technology level. American government not only took science education as the core of constituting and implementing education strategy, but also concerned it as the important measure to develop science and economy, civilize politics, enrich people, and optimize culture. Then the aim of science education is consistent with the goal of national policy. With the aim of high quality education and developing education constantly, America enhanced education quality continuously by means of enhancing the faculty quality, setting up National Education Quality Award, advancing and unifying curricula standard in the whole country, adjusting education system by economic measure, carrying out accountability system, and introducing digital technology into classroom teaching from 1980s.Nationalism is the precondition of constituting national education tactic and determines that American national education strategy focuses on national interest. America has been taking powerful economy as the basis of its hegemony, considering the investment in education as investment in future economy, and emphasizing the pertinence of education development and economy development; it meet the demand of economy development by popularizing education and cultivate person with ability in all levels and classes; it brought universities into national innovation system in order to serve for national economy development directly; it put forward the goal of lifelong learning and establishing learning society in order to immit energy into economy development. Values of equality, freedom and democracy are the soul of American politics, and education is the important part of politics, so the government strengthened politics instruction ceaselessly in order to copy and develop its democratic system. It is the important part of American education tactic to achieve national culture interest by education internationalization, which is the status and trend that education in one country strives to develop and extend to the world. To the country with weaker culture,it exports culture most of the time. American was always taking Anglo-Saxon puritanical culture, religion, commercial system and values derived from them as the core of its mainstream culture and as the pattern of the world culture. With the thought of having responsibility to shape the world and the world culture again by its own ascendant culture values under God’s order, its rationalistic consciousness was impressed by capitalism, which formed the characteristic of American foreign relations in culture with idealism and realism practicing alternately and was not mutually exclusive. America took their powerful education strength as their diplomatic measure, practice realism in the name of idealism, namely to achieve culture extension and server for American politics and economy by education communication, in the name of understanding, communicating, friendliness, promoting education and helping other countries’education development. What is called education internationalization was only the cat’s-paw of American culture tactic.There were diffidently oriented education strategy in America, such as education was the exclusive measure to improve the level of America science and technology, education could develop productivity, education could copy and foster democracy in America, as well as exert and develop the force of American culture. But American education was established on the basis of two fables. The one was that education could prompt equality; the other was that the nation needs good education, which yields good country, so both of the two are the most important two education strategies.Though in such an unequal country, ensuring equity and prompting equality of education was taken as a significant education strategy. The government carried out equality of education by means of compensating education. But the author deemed that the ideal of carrying out equality in American education system could only come true partly, owing to attributes of race, economy system, and the education itself.There are more than 100 years of history in America to pursuit and form hegemony. American education tactic has intense purpose of protecting its hegemonic status, which is mightily motivated. To meet international competition is the precondition of carrying out education strategy, which is also the important support of American global strategy. There are three main strategies in American global tactic. The first one is to maintain the superior status of the state in the world; the second is to keep ahead in military affairs; and the third one is to extend the democracy of American type. The soul of the three is to accomplish American hegemony in the whole world. And the soul of American education tactic is to develop national science and technology and economy then to benefit for national politics and culture in order to prompt U.S., which is a powerful and incomparable nation with the ideal of cosmopolitism, step over the 21 century.American education tactic is hierarchical. Its direct aim is to accomplish education equality, namely the equality of education opportunity, process and result. The nation took the accomplishment of equal education as the significant measure to develop economy and the society. It is the development of national economy, advancement of science, prosperity of culture, and stability of politics, which formed the superior hegemonic national strength, that became the more import aim of American education tactic.