Dissertation > Social Sciences > Ethnology

Derive from Folk Custom Creating and Reading

Author HeMaoLi
Tutor WuWen
School Lanzhou University
Course Modern and Contemporary Literature
Keywords oral culture cultural-humanics modern and contemperory literature the Miao source and development
Type PhD thesis
Year 2008
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Oral culture is an important composition of Chinese national culture,it keeps close to people’s life,representing theirexperience,observation,perception,dream and artistic talents. By means of oral culture,the folk art and literature begin to bloom,and has been existing in previous modern times,during which the society is self-sufficient,closed and backward,natural and ansophisticated,and full of postoral strains .Based on the empirical research of the Miao’s oral culture art,this subject aims at representing the connection and mentality of the Miao which appears in oral culture. including natural ecology. economic situation,ethnical history,forms of policy,substantial and mental life,historical evolution in peace,migration and war,cultural movement and integration in the unsteady times. Futher more, it focuses on reflecting the cultural accumulation of long history mirrored in oral culture of the Miao,which doesn’t constitude the ancient landscapes of mystery,oddity and fantansticality,but also provide the unexhaustible source for modern literature creaters to climb to the artistic peak. In an attempt to draw "the perpetual mental graphy"and retell the shared cultural traditional of ethnic groups,relying on the study means of anthropology,connected my own view with the individual experience,and abstracted a series of siginificant cultural concepts,traditional emblems and literature creating inspirations,to accomplish a new creation implying a sea of cultural information and deep individal awareness.The first chapter analyses the relation between oral culture and witch culture. in virtue of the content "respect the sorcerers entertaining norals",the essay restructured the scenes of spiritualist culture.In addition,the essay tries to demonstrate the deep consciousness of the Miao related to oral culture and sorcery. Art and literature is inextricably involved in sorcery from the beginning of huamn history,though spiritualist culture is not sufficient conditions but necessity for the appearance of oral culture. If there are not sorcery,there must be not art and liturature of magnificance and spendor.Therefore,the gift of spiritualist,hereditory factors,the post-nationl edification,and the insticlation of suce culture into the creations ,are the four elements of the oral culture.It reveals in the use of witch culture on the Miao’s oral culture,it advocates feelings,wisdom and passion,it pays special attention to floweriness,yearning for transcendence,and full of strange imagination and creativity,the common psychological cultural quality of Pay attention to sacrifice activities and ghosts"has many performances,no matter it comes to the immense famous mountain and splendid rivers or the clouds shrouded forests,which are all places where fairies appear,all the myths and fantastic legends have been cast authenticity and fanscinating mystery,making most of their text spreaded into people’s heart and inspired. This deep-lasting psychological state has close connection with the nation’s life.It discusses the mettle of the witch culture in the Miao’s oral culture,it has a strong and effective psychological awareness of utilitarianism;and reflects the psychological awareness of the maio’s separation of soul and body,the comfort psychology praying for peace and survival because of fear.Through the Miao’s witch culture spirit showed in the oral culture,we can see the Miao’s witch emerges on the imagination beyond control towards the reality and the alien force,emerges on the vivid awareness of the ethnic groups’ orign of life,emerges on the humanities spirit constituted by religion ,myth,and art. it also emerges on the long-term moral strength.Chapter 2 analyses the relation between the Miao’s oral culture and the homesickness complex. from the subject home life consciousness is the collective memory of the ethnic groups,it explains facing the ancestors and homeland ,it shows the most long history and endless vitality such as ancient songs,historical songs ,the witch word, legend, apparel, construction, stage, workship and so on,it keep and convey the cultural welth such as the experience, consciousness, ideas, feelings, reprimands of the ethnic groups,and it infiltrate the mountainous nation’s cultural psychological basis.It reveals the continuously homesickness complex in the long tradetion of the oral culture. The glorification and memory of chiyou,the ancient ancestor in the glorious era,the special characteristics the son name after his father from generation to generation play the function of finding out which proups they come from in social,festival culture reflects the identity of ancestors,the patterns yearing of the soul backing home,the proverb "leave return to their roots"reveals the Miao’s smacks of localism;the local art and literary works which suffers wirh localism presents culture world which is full of tender feeling. The homesickness and recall of ancestors inherits for generations in the oral culture ,it carries very solemn mission .It’s not only the rich survival experiences of our ancestors,but also an important way enhancing the nation’s internal solidarity,and ensuring the continuation of ethnic groups.It discusses homesickness complex to the Miao is the homage to the past,cult to the history. Although history has gone,it can be reproduced in the way of art. The history can not be forgotten,but as the Miao,both farm and heard,has a special fear of the lost hometown memory,the fear of betraying and abandonning ancestors,the fear of forgeting the Central Plains,and lost themselves. That’s because the splendid ancient culture make people can’t forget their ancestors and homeland,the state of natural agricultural economy which adoring experience demands people should not forget their ancestors and homeland,the tragic history of five times’ migrating makes people can not forget their ancestors and homeland,the difficult reality of living environment remind people not daring to forget ancestors.Chapter3 analyses the relation between the oral culture and the changes of the ethnic group’s psychological characteristics. It shows the the spoken language which has a history of thousands of years spreads and records how the firm, strong nation turns into a state of conscious concealment and closed in modern culture. From the epoch-making myth, from the extolled of the hero ancestor ChiYou, from the vaguely visible roughand tough in the cenemory,song and dance,we can see that they had never give up the resistance to the heaven and the earth,to the alien invaders. The Miao is an "always moveing nation",and inherits ethnic character in the moving. But in the special historical background, the Miao who constantly move live casually and disorderly in the local people Inhabited for generations .Old crisis is not completely over yet,but the new chanllenge is coming towards. This requires them show a flexibility side in the social contacts. In this way,they create the starting point of "couple hardness with softness" and good-neighborliness in the interpersonal contacts and inter-ethnic relations.It discusses the throretical issues of main body national psychology acception preservation reflected in the oral culture. The phenomenon that insubject national psycological acceptance preservation emerges not mainly rely on they keep their own specific cultural characteristics,the key is their powerful ability in psycological acceptance preservation rather than. The centripetal pattern,collective pattern,econological pattern of culture are the basis of insubject national psycological acceptance preservation;the unique cognitive way is the essence of the insubject national psycological acceptance preservation; Identity of the culture of the ethnic group is the form of the insubject national psycological acceptance preservation;the traditional way of thinking is the deep structure of the insubject national psycological acceptance preservation;the custom culture is the channel of insubject national psycological acceptance preservation.In chapter 4,it analyse the relation between the Miao’s oral culture and ethical culture. It emphasizes that it is the comprehension and expression os survival rules. It also display the changes of the Miao ethical minority’s culture before and after the impact of the Confucian culture;the explicit form of the Miao ethical minority’sconcept.It discusses how the ethical culture implicated in the Folk Literature; ethics emotion in the family model and its memberships; ethical education in daily behavior and mangement;ethical strains in festival customs and so on expressed in the oral culture.Chapter 5 analyse the relation between the oral culture and regilious culture. It studies the Miao use the way of worshiping watching the world from the aspects animism concept is the core of nature worship; the diversity of of the totemism is the unique way the Miao acknowledge;the ancestor worship reflects the complex religious psycology of the Miao an so on. It believed that it is equivalent to the natural world and human life,human beings can use their lives to affect the natural world , the natural world, the same as people, living in the various relationships ,the contact between the culture and the human society is happening at any time.It discusses the openess and non-fixed of modern worship showed in the oral culture. From the content and the form,a number of different religious culture of different origins format a symbiotic relationship rather than the in the form of polarization in metabolism. Despite varying extent the Miao converted to foreign religions ,the national traditional belief is still deeply rooted. The ethnical regilious culture experiences the history changes ,but these changes are not the easily varying,they are process of inclusion,ethnical religious culture not becoming simple,pure because of the historical changes,but bu it is more rich and miscellaneous slimmer . it’s still the worship, fear,and surrealistic attention.Chapter 6 analyse the relation between the oral culture and the ecological awarness. It reveals in the text the ecological awarness contained in the oral cuture is a kind of songs Adagio-consciously survival awarness,the selection, seeding, transplanting, use, and management of the forest trees embodies the ecology conscious everywhere. The special huzhai forest,gushe forest,longtan fprest matches with the ancient culture are the evergreen scenery of the region of miao. The gift of the nature and the ecological consciousness forms a virtuous circle,the hign mountain and strange rock seeing proud into the sky ,the endless Primitive forest,the most clear valley streams,the towering leigong mountain,the Torrents unceasing waterfall huangguoshu with great momentum,the mysterious Palace of Dragon,the surging wujiang,the bizarre mountain wumeng,are the Miao’s habitat in the eyes of people.We ’ve discussed the environment to survive face-singing songs Adagio. The creation of human culture are part of the natural ecology, it has an important impact on the natural. According to its own production, the development of life to make a full use of mountain valley, which used the topography, geomorphology different development stem column architecture, Pavilian and other construction types and geographical distribution, not only demonstrates the use of local residents naturally, follow the natural wisdom and courage, but also conducive to conservation, the protection of sites of the mountain is a natural and harmonious culture, the expression of the human and natural landscape conscious recognition.Miao reasonable organic residential layout ecological awareness of the rich connotation of the Miao village ecology, ecological concepts and practical aesthetic highly consistent Miao residential character is for literature and art of the Miao I proud of the performance of Eco-conscious.Chapter seven of the Miao oral culture and contemporary works Miao writer outlook contacts. First on the cultural integration and change the relationship between literature.This was followed by a demonstration Miao I described for the excellent artistic elements in the Contemporary Writers Miao’s performance. Before six, respectively, from the Wu Miao literary culture created the mysterious Jiwei; interpretations on the heavy representation of the non-rational logic light of the collective unconscious thinking Miao characteristics create a unique way Miao literature describes the relocation of ethnic groups, the migration culture, the wandering souls created Miao fantasy literature continuation of the pursuit; folk sentiments reveal the true feelings created Miao literature may know the ethical sense of pursuit of the eternal vitality of the national self-salvation; Ecological Consciousness created a natural Miao literature to carving and decorating Narrative backgrounds, the following six aspects.Finally, the folk culture is due to the contemporary writer is an inexhaustible source. Subject to the natural environment, production mode, social and historical process as well as ethnic, religious, cultural diversity, mixed, uniqueness of the impact from the creative folk minority has been echoed in China is the pulse of the main stream of contemporary literature.In fact, as a nation unique ideas, emotional principles, practices in existence of folk culture, so writers in the expression of specific circumstances of this nation to the spirit, the kind of precipitation has long been the cultural factor, will inevitably civil etiquette, customs and human, religious beliefs or even Fable legend way out.In the hustle and bustle of urban literature, more minority writers realized that only the folklore and folk culture and the spirit of the writers will be rooted in a deeper land, and their unique feelings and sense of compassion, focus on performance occurred in China’s traditional and the modern conflict, ordinary people’s living conditions, the creation of a clear sense of direction. Based on the underlying civil position and experience in the poor performance of the natural environment, and backward education, poverty personal life, but it also embodies a distinct sense of pioneering spirit and introspection. They have been thinking of themselves with this piece of land, the relationship between the forward and difficult shown a commendable spirit of optimism.Miao oral culture for the study of literature reveals Contemporary Writers minority "sources and development" with a reference.

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