The Research on Advantage of Technological Standard Alliance in High-Technology Industries
|High-tech industry Technological standard alliance Organizational advantage Knowledge creation Multinational innovation network R&D cooperation
Technological standard alliance, which was used as an important competition mean and weapon by enterprises when participating in technological standard competition, has profound impact on original order of social and economic(the market, enterprises and users). But now the theoretical research did not keep up with the step of this fulfillment development in reality, existing literatures didn’t cover issues about technological standard alliance in high-tech industry systematically. Technological standard alliance as an intermediary organization connecting market and enterprise has its special characteristics, so this paper analyzes its organization basis, source of advantages and ways to enhancement in order to provide theoretical deduction and proof for existence and development of this new organizational model, as well as to build a comprehensive analytical framework. Guiding industries and enterprises to recognize the existence of cost and risk also maximize accesses to their unique organizational advantages.First of all, we detected organizational reasons of the advantage in technological standard alliance. As a knowledge base, technological standard alliance has the special ability which was called as the advantage of technological standard alliance to transfer, share and create knowledge. We analyze value network forms of technological standard alliance, value of mobility, network characteristics, participants’relationship and the main motivation with the help of stakeholder governance theory; game theory and value network. The structural features of systemic product lead technological standard alliance which takes the form as network to develop and diffuse technological standard. Within in this network architecture, participants create and allot value in each module and the coordination of modules, therefore cooperation surplus is the basic motivation. Through analyzing on the relation between value network and technological standard alliance, we point out that such a network structure allow technological standard alliance to gather huge knowledge and social capital, then the advantage come out through the transfer, knowledge sharing and creation process. The size of heterogeneity and Scale of social resources decide and consolidate the advantage of technological standard alliance.In the second part, we found the source of technological standard alliance advantages-value creation. We build Game model to analyze and then numerical simulated the three ways through which technological standard alliance create value- converting enemies into friends, utilizing comprehensively and organizational learning. These three creation value way was considered to be dynamic in our research. Both side of cooperative parties can make their correct choice about strategic cooperation colleague based on Evaluation System, and create value through converting enemies into friends; Alliance members take the advantage of cross-organizational resource synergies through three ways-identification of resources, capacity building and the establishment of ability, then combine to create value; With the organizational learning ability exaltation, members can make organization learning near to "efficiency frontier" continuously after finished three study stages successfully, aggressive valuation and adjust and go round and begin again of study circulation, creating value to the greatest extent for enterprise. At the beginning, members chose their cooperation party; at the end they share their knowledge. In this process they upgrade the advantage of technological standard alliance through organizational learning, realize the value creation of technological standard alliance with their interactions, and make internal research and development collaboration more smoothly in the value creation process. Finally, reciprocal relationship between technological standard alliance advantage and enterprises value get access to alliance advantage.Then in the third part, we analyzed ways to promote advantage of technological standard alliance. The way to upgrade the advantage of technological standard alliance is to integrate multinational innovation network. A general definition of technical innovation network was given in this chapter, which describes the structure of multinational innovation network and then analyzes its main content and features. Then, we studied the mechanism of how multinational innovation network to promote alliance advantage. Through integrating into multinational innovation network, alliance member can obtain knowledge resources and social capital which are different from what local participants bring completely, thus diversified innovative environment was built. All of this can consolidate, fix and upgrade the advantage through extensive knowledge of the basic role. We analyze home-country advantage in international technological standards competition conducting a statistical comparison study of potential world’s dominant nations in technological standard alliance from two dimensions, find that the advantage of technology and market are determinant factors of home-country advantage in international technological standards competition. So technological standard alliance should be based on the reciprocal principle, choose enterprises or other technological standard alliances with different home-country advantage as international strategic party to improve technological standard alliance advantage.In the fourth part, we conducted an empirical research to verify the theoretical deduction. We put the virtual variable regression model into our study to validate whether enterprise could acquire alliance advantages or not when participate in technological standard alliance. Results show that high-tech enterprise who take part in technological standard alliance can improve efficiency of technological innovation significantly, enhance the contribution rate of technology innovation for the value of the company and investors was identified with this decision-making. Thereby, we have verified that enterprises could acquire alliance advantages when they take part in technological standard alliance. We applied logistic regression model to study the determinant factors that decide whether enterprises can join technological standard alliance or not. They are technological innovation capacity (shown and potential), position in industry and rate of internationalization. Enterprises who plan to join technological standard alliance for the purpose to obtain its advantage should increase investment in research and development, apply patent especially invention and show its potential and shown technological innovation capacity. The bigger and stronger enterprise is the higher position in industry, which guarantees that the enterprise can obtain sufficient market influence.Finally, with the development of China’s high-tech enterprises in the present condition, this article provided policy recommendations for the high-tech enterprises use the advantage of technological standard alliance to enhance the Core Competence from three levels - state, industry and enterprise. At the national level that should coordinate technology standardization and technology innovation system, build coordination mechanism, and absorb into the national innovation system, to create a macroeconomic environment; Industry level should implement three strategies - standardization cooperation, intellectual property and R&D, to provide industrial policies support; enterprise level is mainly to improve their own technological innovation capacity and market influence, but more important is to adjust organization and the establishment of mechanism be suitable for technological standard alliance.