Consideration for Shaking off Poverty
|Course||Marxist Theory and Ideological and Political Education|
|Keywords||Chinese urban poverty reduction unemploy transformation system comprehensive treatment|
The poverty is a globalization issue,at the same time it is a historical and realistic issue which is puzzling the world all the time.In a sense,a humankind history is a history which men ceaselessly fight against poverty.The issue of poverty is a realistic issue of economic society which Chinese govemment urgently needs to solve it.China has begun to the reform and opening-up for almost thirty years,its economic growth has continuously kept 9%increasing annually,and economic construction has obtained an astonished achievements,but the poverty issue has not been eliminated yet with the economic development.The poverty is a dynamic,historic concept.It is very hard to give an authoritative defination or concept for it,but it has following important characteristics:First,the poverty is an economic concept,a livehood status.It means the basic demands for clothing,food,shelter and medical care etc.which could not be sustained by earnings and other legal incomes of an individual or a family under certain social production methods and living styles.In some sense,the poverty means economic poverty.Second,the poverty is a multiple-pole concept.The poverty not only means economic poverty,but also means political poverty,rights poverty,social and culture poverty.Third,the poverty is a historic concept.The cognition into poverty in our mind is as much deepened as it is developing.Fourth,the poverty is a concept related with the incompetence.AMARTYA SEN thinks that the real meaning of poverty is the poverty of the ability and opportunities of creating incomes by the poverty population.The poverty means the poverty population is short of the ability of acquiring and enjoying normal life.Fifth,poverty is a concept of great diversity when you mean it in different countries owing to the great differences among them in terms of economics,politics and culture,especially the difference of economy power between developing country and developed country.Poverty in developed country may be identified as richness in developing country.Poverty in developed country is a relative concept while it is absolute in developing country.Before the reform and opening-up,China had adopted such kinds of systems for the residents in the towns:the low salary,high employee rate,equal welfare.The main characteristics of incomes distribution is equalitarianism.Gini Coefficient used to reflect the income differences by that time was lower,less than 0.2,the equalitarianism was relative serious.The levels of income and living standard were almost same for the majority people.One could say there was neither wealth nor poverty classes.The urban povery was not be put forward on the agenda.Since China beginning the reform and opening-up,along with the deepening of enterprise reform and quickening of urbanization,the urban poverty gradually shows up with a lot of layoff employees from enterprises and surplus labor forces in rural areas entering citys.Till the end of year 2005,the total population of minimum living standard is 22.33 million in the urban areas,and considering many poverty residents who are not ranked into this scope,especially the the farmer-turned-workers are excluded in this population,in fact,the poverty population in China shall be more than aboved mentioned figuer.According to the estimated statistic,the aggregate of poverty population is about 50 million.The issue of poverty in China is very grave. Strengthening study and research on the issue of urban poverty is not only the urgent theoretical topic,but also a crucial practical issue.Speeding up poverty reduction is the requirements of building up a well-off society,the transformation of Chinese economic development modes and maintaintence the social stability.In order to solve the issue of increasingly serious urban poverty,from last century 1990s,Chinese govemment has enacted and promulgated a series of policies for subsidizing urban poverty population.Up to the now,the fighting against poverty acting systems have been established initially.This established systems has showed that Chinese fightinmg against poverty acting systems have been gradually shaped into policies system from temporary systems.The Chinese subsidized poverty policies is featured as following:First,preventing poverty policies,which means to prevent forming the poverty population or reduce the probability of forming poverty population.It includes all kinds of the social insurance systems,namely,the minimum salary security system, unemployment insurance,hospitalization insurance,endowment insuranee,etc.Second,relieving subsidized poverty policies,which means when the poverty really happens,the relieving subsidized poverty policies shall function to reduce the negtive effects and damages by any means and efforts.It includes the urban minimun low income security system,basic living allownce system of lay-off employee, take-care system.Thrid,development subsidized poverty policies,which means to eliminate the obstacles and exploit the oppunities and abilities of poverty population getting rid of the poverty,that is the reemployment policy.The Chinese urban poverty has three aspects,namely,microscopic view, macroscopic view and in-between view.From the perspective of microscopic view, the poverty of the superficies reason is the unemployment and insufficiency employment.The urban poverty in China is closely related with employment rate. Althrough the earnings and incomes of individuals or a family have appeared in multi-pole trends,the incomes from employment is still a major portion for urban residences,accounting for 80%of total incomes.So the urban poverty is a reflection on the insufficiency of emplorment and unemployment rate.The depth reason is the lower ability and incompetence among poverty groups.From the urban poverty itself point of view,the lower culture and technical quality,the insurficency accumulation of man-power resources,and uncompetitive ability,all are the major factors resulting in urban poverty.Furthermore,the concept of employment,the burden coefficient of a family,and the morality,all these factors of a poverty individual have influence on himself getting into poverty.From the perspective of macroscopic view,the poverty comes from the directly and indirectly affecting of the globalization,and it also the result of Chinese society transformation.On the one hand,the economic globalization brings into the global competition,and the market opening-up has sped up the urban poverty in China.On the other hand,since China beginning the reform and opening-up,the social structure transformation and economic system shift have been in parallel pushed forward, which results in reciprocally pushing froward trend and directly affects the poverty population,so that the poverty population has obviously appear the characteristcs of transforming period.From the perspective of in-between view,the poverty of Chinese cities mainly is the system reasons,and system factors of Chinese society transformation and the system inertia of old planned economic system.The free selection rights of an individual is confined and deprived by this system inertia and it let some groups and individuals become poverty.The transformation of employment system,abuses of dualized household registration certificate system,the change of distribution system of earnings and incomes,imperfect social security systerm,etc.all these system reasons are the main reasons of forming urban poverty population.In order to solve Chinese urban poverty problems,we must solve it from three aspects,that is microscopic view,macroscopic view and in-between view.In microscopic view,the man-power resources shall be further exploited,and the ability of getting rid of poverty by poverty population shall be enhanced.The poverty population is not only lack of living material resources,but also is short of surviable ablility and taking profits ability.The ability deficiency of poverty population is coming from lower-level of man-power resources.For the man-power resources development of poverty groups,the investments shall be increased on education and technical training,enlarging and improving medical security system, enchancing the physical health.In progress of man-power resources development, the methods of support and control shall be coexistence,and the povety population growth shall be tightly controlled,and the poverty population shall be educated and cultivated the awareness of actively fighting against poverty.In macroscopic view,the high speed of economic growth shall be kept,and more employment opportunities shall be created.The economic growth can increase the earnings and incomes,alleviate poverty,increase employment opporunities, reduce unemployment rate,and reduce poverty population.In seeking for the good relationship between economic growth and increasing employment oppunities,the flexible employment has to be discussed in depth.Looking around the world,the high employment rate of economic growth shall be actively enlarged the employment opptunities,broaden the employment channels of new economic growth points.In in-between view,the earnings and incomes gradually rise for urban poverty population shall be guranteed by the evolution of systems.The urban poverty population is gradually emerging when the old systems began to break down and new systems is in fledgeless conditions.From the system aspects,the important way getting of poverty is to pomote the income rise for low-income groups,to eliminate system obstacles,extende policies space,promote the improvement of critical systems which effect the income of poverty groups.The important systems and policies include the employment system,household registered certificate system,distributing system and society security system.